LIMITS ON CHARGED PARTICLES IN COSMIC RAYS

Heavy Particle Flux in Cosmic Rays INSPIRE search

VALUE (cm${}^{-2}$sr${}^{-1}$s${}^{-1}$) CL% EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN CHG  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<1 \times 10^{-8}$ 90 0 1
AGNESE
2015
CDM2 $\mathit Q$ = 1/6
$\sim$$6 \times 10^{-9}$ 2 2
SAITO
1990
$\mathit Q$ $\simeq{}$ 14, $\mathit m$ $\simeq{}$ 370${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<1.4 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 0 3
MINCER
1985
CALO $\mathit m$ ${}\geq{}$ 1 TeV
4
SAKUYAMA
1983B
PLAS $\mathit m$ $\sim{}$ 1 TeV
$<1.7 \times 10^{-11}$ 99 0 5
BHAT
1982
CC
$<1. \times 10^{-9}$ 90 0 6
MARINI
1982
CNTR +- $\mathit Q$= 1, $\mathit m$ $\sim{}4.5{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$2. \times 10^{-9}$ 3 7
YOCK
1981
SPRK +- $\mathit Q$= 1, $\mathit m$ $\sim{}4.5{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
3 7
YOCK
1981
SPRK Fractionally charged
$3.0 \times 10^{-9}$ 3 8
YOCK
1980
SPRK $\mathit m$ $\sim{}$4.5 ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
($4$ $\pm1$) $ \times 10^{-11}$ 3
GOODMAN
1979
ELEC $\mathit m$ ${}\geq{}$ 5 GeV
$<1.3 \times 10^{-9}$ 90 9
BHAT
1978
CNTR +- $\mathit m$ $>$1 GeV
$<1.0 \times 10^{-9}$ 0
BRIATORE
1976
ELEC
$<7. \times 10^{-10}$ 90 0
YOCK
1975
ELEC +- $\mathit Q$ $>7{{\mathit e}}$ or $<-7{{\mathit e}}$
$>6. \times 10^{-9}$ 5 10
YOCK
1974
CNTR $\mathit m$ $>$6 GeV
$<3.0 \times 10^{-8}$ 0
DARDO
1972
CNTR
$<1.5 \times 10^{-9}$ 0
TONWAR
1972
CNTR $\mathit m$ $>$10 GeV
$<3.0 \times 10^{-10}$ 0
BJORNBOE
1968
CNTR $\mathit m$ $>$5 GeV
$<5.0 \times 10^{-11}$ 90 0
JONES
1967
ELEC $\mathit m=5-$15 GeV
1  See AGNESE 2015 Fig. 6 for limits extending down to Q = 1/200.
2  SAITO 1990 candidates carry about 450 MeV/nucleon. Cannot be accounted for by conventional backgrounds. Consistent with strange quark matter hypothesis.
3  MINCER 1985 is high statistics study of calorimeter signals delayed by 20$-$200 ns. Calibration with AGS beam shows they can be accounted for by rare fluctuations in signals from low-energy hadrons in the shower. Claim that previous delayed signals including BJORNBOE 1968 , DARDO 1972 , BHAT 1982 , SAKUYAMA 1983B below may be due to this fake effect.
4  SAKUYAMA 1983B analyzed 6000 extended air shower events. Increase of delayed particles and change of lateral distribution above $10^{17}$ eV may indicate production of very heavy parent at top of atmosphere.
5  BHAT 1982 observed 12 events with delay $>2. \times 10^{-8}~$s and with more than 40 particles. 1 eV has good hadron shower. However all events are delayed in only one of two detectors in cloud chamber, and could not be due to strongly interacting massive particle.
6  MARINI 1982 applied PEP-counter for TOF. Above limit is for velocity = 0.54 of light. Limit is inconsistent with YOCK 1980 YOCK 1981 events if isotropic dependence on zenith angle is assumed.
7  YOCK 1981 saw another 3 events with $\mathit Q$ = $\pm1$ and $\mathit m$ about 4.5${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$ as well as 2 events with $\mathit m$ $>5.3{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$, $\mathit Q$ = $\pm0.75\pm0.05$ and $\mathit m$ $>2.8{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$, $\mathit Q$ = $\pm0.70\pm0.05$ and 1 event with $\mathit m$ = ($9.3$ $\pm3.){\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$, $\mathit Q$ = $\pm0.89\pm0.06$ as possible heavy candidates.
8  YOCK 1980 events are with charge exactly or approximately equal to unity.
9  BHAT 1978 is at Kolar gold fields. Limit is for $\tau $ $>10^{-6}$ s.
10  YOCK 1974 events could be tritons.
  References:
AGNESE 2015
PRL 114 111302 First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6
SAITO 1990
PRL 65 2094 Is There Strange Quark Matter in Galactic Cosmic Rays?
MINCER 1985
PR D32 541 Search for Heavy Longlived Particles in High Energy Cosmic Rays
SAKUYAMA 1983B
LNC 37 17 Evidence for a New Stable Particle with Heavy Mass Around $10^{17}$ eV
BHAT 1982
PR D25 2820 Delayed Energetic Events in Extensive Air Showers
MARINI 1982
PR D26 1777 Experimental Limits on Quarks, Tachyons and Massive Particles in Cosmic Rays
YOCK 1981
PR D23 1207 Further Evidence for Heavy Particles in the Cosmic Radiation
YOCK 1980
PR D22 61 Heavy Particles in the Cosmic Radiation?
GOODMAN 1979
PR D19 2572 Observation of Energetic Delayed Hadrons in Air Showers: New Massive Particles?
BHAT 1978
PRAM 10 115 A Search for Heavy Leptons in Cosmic Radiation Underground
BRIATORE 1976
NC 31A 553 Results of the Torino Search for Quarks
YOCK 1975
NP B86 216 Search for Highly Charged Particles in the Cosmic Rays
YOCK 1974
NP B76 175 Search for Heavy Particles in Cosmic Rays
DARDO 1972
NC 9A 319 Quark Candidates among Delayed Shower Particles at 70 M W.E. Underground
TONWAR 1972
JP A5 569 Search for Massive Interacting Particles near the Cores of Extensive Air Showers of Energies of about 2 ${\times }$ $10^{14}$ $−$ $10^{16}$ eV
BJORNBOE 1968
NC B53 241 Search for Long-lived Heavy Particles in Cosmic-Ray Events at Energies Above Several Thousand GeV
JONES 1967
PR 164 1584 Search for Massive Particles in Cosmic Rays