CONCENTRATION OF STABLE PARTICLES IN MATTER

Concentration of Heavy (Charge $+1$) Stable Particles in Matter INSPIRE search

VALUE CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<4 \times 10^{-17}$ 95 1
YAMAGATA
1993
SPEC Deep sea water, $\mathit M=5 - 1600{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<6 \times 10^{-15}$ 95 2
VERKERK
1992
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$= $10^{5}$ to $3 \times 10^{7}$ GeV
$<7 \times 10^{-15}$ 95 2
VERKERK
1992
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$= $10^{4}$, $6 \times 10^{7}$ GeV
$<9 \times 10^{-15}$ 95 2
VERKERK
1992
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$= $10^{8}$ GeV
$<3 \times 10^{-23}$ 90 3
HEMMICK
1990
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ = 1000${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<2 \times 10^{-21}$ 90 3
HEMMICK
1990
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ = 5000${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<3 \times 10^{-20}$ 90 3
HEMMICK
1990
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ = 10000${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<1. \times 10^{-29}$
SMITH
1982B
SPEC Water, $\mathit M=30-400{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<2. \times 10^{-28}$
SMITH
1982B
SPEC Water, $\mathit M=12-1000{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<1. \times 10^{-14}$
SMITH
1982B
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ $>$1000 ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<(0.2-1.){\times }\text{ 10^}{-21}$
SMITH
1979
SPEC Water, $\mathit M=6-$350 ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
1  YAMAGATA 1993 used deep sea water at 4000$~$m since the concentration is enhanced in deep sea due to gravity.
2  VERKERK 1992 looked for heavy isotopes in sea water and put a bound on concentration of stable charged massive particle in sea water. The above bound can be translated into into a bound on charged dark matter particle ($5 \times 10^{6}$ GeV), assuming the local density, $\rho =0.3$ GeV/cm${}^{3}$, and the mean velocity $\langle{}\mathit v\rangle{}$=300 km/s.
3  See HEMMICK 1990 Fig.$~$7 for other masses $100 - 10000~{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$.
  References:
YAMAGATA 1993
PR D47 1231 Search for Anomalous Heavy Hydrogen in Deep Sea Water at 4000 m
VERKERK 1992
PRL 68 1116 Search for Superheavy Hydrogen in Sea Water
HEMMICK 1990
PR D41 2074 Search for Low-Z Nuclei Containing Massive Stable Particles
SMITH 1982B
NP B206 333 A Search for Anomalous Hydrogen in Enriched D$_{2}$O, Using a Time Flight Spectrometer
SMITH 1979
NP B149 525 A Search for Heavy Stable Particles