LIMITS ON CHARGED PARTICLES IN ${{\boldsymbol e}^{+}}{{\boldsymbol e}^{-}}$

Heavy Particle Production Cross Section in ${{\boldsymbol e}^{+}}{{\boldsymbol e}^{-}}$ INSPIRE search

Ratio to ${\mathit \sigma (}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \mu}^{+}}{{\mathit \mu}^{-}}{)}$ unless noted. See also entries in Free Quark Search and Magnetic Monopole Searches.
VALUE CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<1 \times 10^{-3}$ 90 1
ABLIKIM
2017AA
BES3 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \ell}}{{\overline{\mathit \ell}}}{{\mathit \gamma}}$
2
ACKERSTAFF
1998P
OPAL $\mathit Q$=1,2/3, $\mathit m=45 - 89.5$ GeV
3
ABREU
1997D
DLPH $\mathit Q$=1,2/3, $\mathit m=45 - 84$ GeV
4
BARATE
1997K
ALEP $\mathit Q$=1, $\mathit m=45 - 85$ GeV
$<2 \times 10^{-5}$ 95 5
AKERS
1995R
OPAL $\mathit Q$=1, $\mathit m$= $5 - 45$ GeV
$<1 \times 10^{-5}$ 95 5
AKERS
1995R
OPAL $\mathit Q$=2, $\mathit m$= $5 - 45$ GeV
$<2 \times 10^{-3}$ 90 6
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP $\mathit Q$=1, $\mathit m=32 - 72$ GeV
$\text{<()}$ 95 7
ADACHI
1990C
TOPZ $\mathit Q$=1, $\mathit m=1 - 16$, $18 - 27$ GeV
$<0.07$ 90 8
ADACHI
1990E
TOPZ $\mathit Q$ = 1, $\mathit m$ = $5 - 25$ GeV
$<0.016$ 95 9
KINOSHITA
1982
PLAS $\mathit Q=3-$180, $\mathit m$ $<$14.5 GeV
$<0.05$ 90 10
BARTEL
1980
JADE $\mathit Q$=(3,4,5)/3 2$-$12 GeV
1  ABLIKIM 2017AA search for dark photon ${{\mathit A}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \ell}}{{\overline{\mathit \ell}}}$ at 3.773 GeV with 2.93 fb${}^{-1}$. Limits are set in ${{\mathit \epsilon}}$ vs m(${{\mathit A}}$) plane.
2  ACKERSTAFF 1998P search for pair production of long-lived charged particles at $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ between 130 and 183 GeV and give limits $\sigma <(0.05 - 0.2)~$pb (95$\%$CL) for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles with $\mathit m=45 - 89.5$ GeV, charge$~$1 and 2/3. The limit is translated to the cross section at $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$=183 GeV with the ${{\mathit s}}~$dependence described in the paper. See their Figs.$~2 - 4$.
3  ABREU 1997D search for pair production of long-lived particles and give limits $\sigma <(0.4 - 2.3)~$pb (95$\%$CL) for various center-of-mass energies $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}=130 - 136$, 161, and 172 GeV, assuming an almost flat production distribution in cos $\theta $.
4  BARATE 1997K search for pair production of long-lived charged particles at $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ = 130, 136, 161, and 172 GeV and give limits $\sigma <(0.2 - 0.4)~$pb (95$\%$CL) for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles with $\mathit m=45 - 85$ GeV. The limit is translated to the cross section at $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$=172 GeV with the $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ dependence described in the paper. See their Figs.$~$2 and 3 for limits on $\mathit J$ and $\mathit J$ cases.
5  AKERS 1995R is a CERN-LEP experiment with ${\mathrm {W}}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ $\sim{}{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit Z}}}$. The limit is for the production of a stable particle in multihadron events normalized to $\sigma\mathrm {( {{\mathit e}^{+}} {{\mathit e}^{-}} \rightarrow hadrons)}$. Constant phase space distribution is assumed. See their Fig.$~$3 for bounds for $\mathit Q$ = $\pm2$/3, $\pm4$/3.
6  BUSKULIC 1993C is a CERN-LEP experiment with ${\mathrm {W}}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ = ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit Z}}}$. The limit is for a pair or single production of heavy particles with unusual ionization loss in TPC. See their Fig.$~$5 and Table$~$1.
7  ADACHI 1990C is a KEK-TRISTAN experiment with ${\mathrm {W}}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ = $52 - 60$ GeV. The limit is for pair production of a scalar or spin-1/2 particle. See Figs.$~$3 and $~$4.
8  ADACHI 1990E is KEK-TRISTAN experiment with ${\mathrm {W}}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ = $52 - 61.4$ GeV. The above limit is for inclusive production cross section normalized to ${\mathit \sigma (}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \mu}^{+}}{{\mathit \mu}^{-}}{)}\cdot{}\beta\mathrm {(3 - \beta {}^{2})}$/2, where $\beta $ = (1$~−~4\mathit m{}^{2}/{\mathrm {W}}{}^{2}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}){}^{1/2}$. See the paper for the assumption about the production mechanism.
9  KINOSHITA 1982 is SLAC PEP experiment at ${\mathrm {W}}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ = 29 GeV using lexan and ${}^{39}\mathrm {Cr}$ plastic sheets sensitive to highly ionizing particles.
10  BARTEL 1980 is DESY-PETRA experiment with ${\mathrm {W}}_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ = 27$-$35 GeV. Above limit is for inclusive pair production and ranges between $0.1$ and $0.01$ depending on mass and production momentum distributions. (See their figures 9, 10, 11).
  References:
ABLIKIM 2017AA
PL B774 252 Dark Photon Search in the Mass Range between 1.5 and 3.4 ${\mathrm {GeV/}}\mathit c{}^{2}$
ACKERSTAFF 1998P
PL B433 195 Search for Stable and Longlived Massive Charged Particles with the OPAL Detector at LEP in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13
ABREU 1997D
PL B396 315 Search for Stable Heavy Charged Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 130-136, 161 and 172 GeV
BARATE 1997K
PL B405 379 Search for Pair Production of Long Lived Heavy Charged Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
AKERS 1995R
ZPHY C67 203 Search for Heavy Charged Particles and for Particles with Anomalous Charge in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at LEP
BUSKULIC 1993C
PL B303 198 Search for Particles with Unexpected Mass and Charge in ${{\mathit Z}}$ Decays
ADACHI 1990C
PL B244 352 Search for Pair Production of Heavy Stable Particles at TRISTAN
ADACHI 1990E
PL B249 336 A Search for Inclusive Production of Heavy Stable Particles by the TOPAZ Detector at TRISTAN
KINOSHITA 1982
PRL 48 77 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 29 GeV
BARTEL 1980
ZPHY C6 295 Search for Fractional Charge and Heavy Stable Particles at PETRA