LIMITS ON CHARGED PARTICLES IN COSMIC RAYS

Superheavy Particle (Quark Matter) Flux in Cosmic Rays INSPIRE search

VALUE (cm${}^{-2}$sr${}^{-1}$s${}^{-1}$) CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
1
ADRIANI
2015
PMLA 4 $<$ $\mathit m$ $<1.2 \times 10^{5}{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<5 \times 10^{-16}$ 90 2
AMBROSIO
2000B
MCRO $\mathit m>5 \times 10^{14}$ GeV
$<1.8 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 3
ASTONE
1993
CNTR $\mathit m{}\geq{}1.5 \times 10^{-13}$gram
$<1.1 \times 10^{-14}$ 90 4
AHLEN
1992
MCRO $10^{-10}<{\mathit m}_{\mathrm {}}<0.1$ gram
$<2.2 \times 10^{-14}$ 90 5
NAKAMURA
1991
PLAS $\mathit m>10^{11}$ GeV
$<6.4 \times 10^{-16}$ 90 6
ORITO
1991
PLAS $\mathit m>10^{12}$ GeV
$<2.0 \times 10^{-11}$ 90 7
LIU
1988
BOLO $\mathit m>1.5 \times 10^{-13}$ gram
$<4.7 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 8
BARISH
1987
CNTR $1.4 \times 10^{8}<\mathit m<10^{12}$ GeV
$<3.2 \times 10^{-11}$ 90 9
NAKAMURA
1985
CNTR $\mathit m$ $>1.5 \times 10^{-13}$gram
$<3.5 \times 10^{-11}$ 90 10
ULLMAN
1981
CNTR Planck-mass $10^{19}$GeV
$<7. \times 10^{-11}$ 90 10
ULLMAN
1981
CNTR $\mathit m{}\leq{}10^{16}$ GeV
1  ADRIANI 2015 search for relatively light quark matter with charge $\mathit Z$ = $1 - 8$. See their Figs. 2 and 3 for flux upper limits.
2  AMBROSIO 2000B searched for quark matter (``nuclearites'') in the velocity range ($10^{-5} - 1)~\mathit c$. The listed limit is for $2 \times 10^{-3}~\mathit c$.
3  ASTONE 1993 searched for quark matter (``nuclearites'') in the velocity range ($10^{-3} - 1)~\mathit c$. Their Table$~$1 gives a compilation of searches for nuclearites.
4  AHLEN 1992 searched for quark matter (``nuclearites''). The bound applies to velocity $<2.5 \times 10^{-3}~\mathit c$. See their Fig.$~$3 for other velocity/$\mathit c$ and heavier mass range.
5  NAKAMURA 1991 searched for quark matter in the velocity range ($4 \times 10^{-5} - 1)~\mathit c$.
6  ORITO 1991 searched for quark matter. The limit is for the velocity range ($10^{-4} - 10^{-3})~\mathit c$.
7  LIU 1988 searched for quark matter (``nuclearites'') in the velocity range ($2.5 \times 10^{-3} - 1)\mathit c$. A less stringent limit of $5.8 \times 10^{-11}$ applies for ($1 - 2.5){\times }10^{-3}\mathit c$.
8  BARISH 1987 searched for quark matter (``nuclearites'') in the velocity range ($2.7 \times 10^{-4} - 5 \times 10^{-3})\mathit c$.
9  NAKAMURA 1985 at KEK searched for quark-matter. These might be lumps of strange quark matter with roughly equal numbers of ${\mathit {\mathit u}}$, ${\mathit {\mathit d}}$, ${\mathit {\mathit s}}$ quarks. These lumps or nuclearites were assumed to have velocity of ($10^{-4}-10^{-3})~\mathit c$.
10  ULLMAN 1981 is sensitive for heavy slow singly charge particle reaching earth with vertical velocity 100$-$350 km/s.
  References:
ADRIANI 2015
PRL 115 111101 New Upper Limit on Strange Quark Matter Abundance in Cosmic Rays with the PAMELA Space Experiment
AMBROSIO 2000B
EPJ C13 453 Search for Nuclearites with the MACRO Detector at Gran Sasso
ASTONE 1993
PR D47 4770 Upper Limit for Nuclearites Flux from the Rome Gravitational Wave Resonant Detectors
AHLEN 1992
PRL 69 1860 Search for Nuclearites Using the MACRO Detector
NAKAMURA 1991
PL B263 529 New Flux Limit on Strange Matter
ORITO 1991
PRL 66 1951 Search for Supermassive Relics with a 2000-m${}^{2}$ Array of Plastic Track Detectors
LIU 1988
PRL 61 271 Nuclearites Flux Limit from Gravitational Wave Detectors
BARISH 1987
PR D36 2641 Search for Grand Unification Monopoles and Other Ionizing Heavy Particles Using a Scintillation at the Earth's Surface
NAKAMURA 1985
PL 161B 417 Search for Cosmic Nuclearites at Sea Level
ULLMAN 1981
PRL 47 289 Limits on the Flux of Slowly Moving Very Massive Particles Carrying Electric or Magnetic Charge