Quark Flux $-$ Cosmic Ray Searches INSPIRE search

Shielding values followed with an asterisk indicate altitude in km. Shielding values not followed with an asterisk indicate sea level in kg/cm${}^{2}$.
FLUX (cm${}^{-2}$sr${}^{-1}$s${}^{-1}$) CHG ${\mathrm {(\mathit e/3)}}$ MASS ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ SHIELDING DOCUMENT ID TECN
$ \text{< 1.E-8} $ $\text{1/6-1/10}$ 1
AGNESE
2015
CDMS
$ \text{<9.2E-15} $ $\pm1$ $3800$ 2
AMBROSIO
2000C
MCRO
$ \text{<2.1E-15} $ $\pm1$
MORI
1991
KAM2
$ \text{<2.3E-15} $ $\pm2$
MORI
1991
KAM2
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $\pm1,2$ $0.3$
WADA
1988
CNTR
$ $ $\pm4$ $0.3$ 3
WADA
1988
CNTR
$ $ $\pm4$ $0.3$ 4
WADA
1986
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-12} $ $\pm2$,3/2 $-70.$ 5
KAWAGOE
1984B
PLAS
$ \text{<9.E-10} $ $\pm1$,2 $0.3$
WADA
1984B
CNTR
$ \text{<4.E-9} $ $\pm4$ $0.3$
WADA
1984B
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-12} $ $\pm1$,2,3 $-0.3$ $\ast{}$
MASHIMO
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-10} $ $\pm1$,2 $0.3$
MARINI
1982
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-11} $ $\pm1$,2
MASHIMO
1982
CNTR
$ \text{<8.E-10} $ $\pm1$,2 $0.3$ 5
NAPOLITANO
1982
CNTR
$ $ 6
YOCK
1978
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-9} $ 7
BRIATORE
1976
ELEC
$ \text{<2.E-11} $ $+1$ 8
HAZEN
1975
CC
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+1$,2
KRISOR
1975
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-7} $ $+1$,2 8, 9
CLARK
1974B
CC
$ \text{<3.E-10} $ $+1$ $>20$
KIFUNE
1974
CNTR
$ \text{<8.E-11} $ $+1$ 8
ASHTON
1973
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-8} $ $+1$,2
HICKS
1973B
CNTR
$ \text{<5.E-10} $ $+4$ $2.8$ $\ast{}$
BEAUCHAMP
1972
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-10} $ $+1$,2 8
BOHM
1972B
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-10} $ $+1$,2 $2.8$ $\ast{}$
COX
1972
ELEC
$ \text{<3.E-10} $ $+2$
CROUCH
1972
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-8} $ $7$ 7
DARDO
1972
CNTR
$ \text{<4.E-9} $ $+1$ 8
EVANS
1972
CC
$ \text{<2.E-9} $ $>10$ 7
TONWAR
1972
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+1$ $2.8$ $\ast{}$
CHIN
1971
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-10} $ $+1$,2 8
CLARK
1971B
CC
$ \text{<1.E-10} $ $+1$,2 8
HAZEN
1971
CC
$ \text{<5.E-10} $ $+1$,2 $3.5$ $\ast{}$
BOSIA
1970
CNTR
$ $ $+1$,2 $<6.5$ 8
CHU
1970
HLBC
$ \text{<2.E-9} $ $+1$
FAISSNER
1970B
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+1$,2 $0.8$ $\ast{}$
KRIDER
1970
CNTR
$ \text{<5.E-11} $ $+2$
CAIRNS
1969
CC
$ \text{<8.E-10} $ $+1$,2 $<10$
FUKUSHIMA
1969
CNTR
$ $ $+2$ 8, 10
MCCUSKER
1969
CC
$ \text{<1.E-10} $ $>5$ $1.7,3.6$ 7
BJORNBOE
1968
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-8} $ $\pm1$,2,4 $6.3,.2$ $\ast{}$ 5
BRIATORE
1968
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-8} $ $>2$
FRANZINI
1968
CNTR
$ \text{<9.E-11} $ $\pm1$,2
GARMIRE
1968
CNTR
$ \text{<4.E-10} $ $\pm1$
HANAYAMA
1968
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-8} $ $>15$
KASHA
1968
OSPK
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+2$
KASHA
1968B
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+4$
KASHA
1968C
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+2$ $6$
BARTON
1967
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-7} $ $+4$ $0.008,0.5$ $\ast{}$
BUHLER
1967
CNTR
$ \text{<5.E-10} $ 1,2 $0.008,0.5$ $\ast{}$
BUHLER
1967B
CNTR
$ \text{<4.E-10} $ $+1$,2
GOMEZ
1967
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-9} $ $+2$
KASHA
1967
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-10} $ $+2$ $220$
BARTON
1966
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-9} $ $+1$,2 $0.5$ $\ast{}$
BUHLER
1966
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-9} $ $+1$,2
KASHA
1966
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-9} $ $+1$,2
LAMB
1966
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-8} $ $+1$,2 $>7$ $2.8$ $\ast{}$
DELISE
1965
CNTR
$ \text{<5.E-8} $ $+2$ $>2.5$ $0.5$ $\ast{}$
MASSAM
1965
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-8} $ $+1$ $2.5$ $\ast{}$
BOWEN
1964
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-7} $ $+1$ $0.8$
SUNYAR
1964
CNTR
1  See AGNESE 2015 Fig.6 for limits on vertical density as function of charge extending to $\vert $q$\vert $/e $<$ 1/10.
2  AMBROSIO 2000C limit is below $11 \times 10^{-15}$ for $0.25<\mathit q/e<0.5$, and is changing rapidly near $\mathit q/e$=2/3, where it is $2 \times 10^{-14}$.
3  Distribution in celestial sphere was described as anisotropic.
4  With telescope axis at zenith angle 40$^\circ{}$ to the south.
5  Leptonic quarks.
6  Lifetime $>10^{-8}$ s; charge $\pm0.70$, 0.68, 0.42; and mass $>$4.4, 4.8, and 20 GeV, respectively.
7  Time delayed air shower search.
8  Prompt air shower search.
9  Also $\mathit e$/4 and $\mathit e$/6 charges.
10  No events in subsequent experiments.
  References:
AGNESE 2015
PRL 114 111302 First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6
AMBROSIO 2000C
PR D62 052003 A Search for Lightly Ionizing Particles with the MACRO Detector
MORI 1991
PR D43 2843 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Kamiokande-II
WADA 1988
NC 11C 229 The Arrival Direction of (4/3)${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Lepton Candidates in Celestial Coordinates
WADA 1986
NC 9C 358 New Partially Charged Leptons at Underground Experiments
KAWAGOE 1984B
LNC 41 604 An Underground Search for Fractionally Charged Penetrating Particles
WADA 1984B
LNC 40 329 Search for (4/3)e Charged Leptons in Cosmic Rays
MASHIMO 1983
PL 128B 327 An Underground Search for Anomalous Penetrating Particles such as Massive Magnetic Monopoles
MARINI 1982
PR D26 1777 Experimental Limits on Quarks, Tachyons and Massive Particles in Cosmic Rays
MASHIMO 1982
JPSJ 51 3067 Search for Slow Monopoles and Quarks
NAPOLITANO 1982
PR D25 2837 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Cosmic Rays at Large Zenith Angles
YOCK 1978
PR D18 641 Evidence for Longlived Heavy Particles with Fractional Charge
BRIATORE 1976
NC 31A 553 Results of the Torino Search for Quarks
HAZEN 1975
NP B95 189 Search for ${1\over 3}\mathit e$ Quarks in Cosmic Rays with the Leeds Cloud Chamber
KRISOR 1975
NC 27A 132 Search for Ultrarelativistic Quarks in Cosmic Rays
CLARK 1974B
PR D10 2721 Lack of Low-Density Cosmic-Ray Tracks
KIFUNE 1974
JPSJ 36 629 Search for Cosmic Ray Quarks at Large Zenith Angles
ASHTON 1973
JP A6 577 Search for Quarks Using a Flash-Tube Chamber
HICKS 1973B
NC 14A 65 Sea Level Search for Leptonic Quarks in Cosmic Rays
BEAUCHAMP 1972
PR D6 1211 Search for 4/3e Charged Diquarks in the Cosmic Radiation at 2750 m Altitude
BOHM 1972B
PRL 28 326 Search for Quarks in High Energy Air Showers
COX 1972
PR D6 1203 Search 1/3e and 2/3e Charged Quarks in the Cosmic Radiation at 2750 m Altitude
CROUCH 1972
PR D5 2667 Search for Relativistic Charge $−$2/3e Quarks in the Cosmic Radiation
DARDO 1972
NC 9A 319 Quark Candidates among Delayed Shower Particles at 70 M W.E. Underground
EVANS 1972
PRSE A70 143 Search for the Quark in Extensive Air Showers, using a Counter Controlled Cloud Chamber
TONWAR 1972
JP A5 569 Search for Massive Interacting Particles near the Cores of Extensive Air Showers of Energies of about 2 ${\times }$ $10^{14}$ $−$ $10^{16}$ eV
CHIN 1971
NC 2A 419 Search for Relativistic Quarks in Cosmic Rays at Sea Level and at Mountain Altitude
CLARK 1971B
PRL 27 51 Cloud Chamber Quark Quest Negative Results
HAZEN 1971
PRL 26 582 Cloud Chamber Search for 1/3e and 2/3e Quarks in Air Showers
BOSIA 1970
NC 66A 167 A Search for SU(3) Particles in EAS at 3500 m S.L
CHU 1970
PRL 24 917 Evidence of a Quark in a High Energy Cosmic Ray Bubble Chamber Picture
FAISSNER 1970B
PRL 24 1357 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Showers of Low Density
KRIDER 1970
PR D1 835 Search for Charge 1/3e and 2/3e Quarks in Cosmic Radiation near Sea Level
CAIRNS 1969
PR 186 1394 Lightly Ionizing Particles in Air Shower Cores
FUKUSHIMA 1969
PR 178 2058 Search for Quarks
MCCUSKER 1969
PRL 23 658 Evidence of Quarks in Air Shower Cores
BJORNBOE 1968
NC B53 241 Search for Long-lived Heavy Particles in Cosmic-Ray Events at Energies Above Several Thousand GeV
BRIATORE 1968
NC 57A 850 An Underground Search for Leptonic Quarks in the Cosmic Radiation
FRANZINI 1968
PRL 21 1013 Search for Massive Particles in the Cosmic Radiation at Sea Level
GARMIRE 1968
PR 166 1280 Search for Quarks in Cosmic Rays at Sea Level
HANAYAMA 1968
CJP 46 S734 Search for Quarks in Cosmic Rays at Sea Level
KASHA 1968C
CJP 46 S730 Search for Particles with Charge 2/3e in Cosmic Rays
KASHA 1968
PR 172 1297 Search for Heavy Triplets in Cosmic Rays
KASHA 1968B
PRL 20 217 Search for Particles with Fractional Charge > 4/3e in Cosmic Rays
BARTON 1967
PRSL 90 87 An Investigation of Cosmic Rays Underground Using A Scintillator Stack IV. an Upper Limit for the Rate of Relativistic Particle of Charge Two-Thirds
BUHLER 1967
NC 49A 209 Hunting Charges $\pm{}$4/3e in the Cosmic Radiation
BUHLER 1967B
NC 51A 837 A Study of the Fractional Charge Content of the Cosmic Radiation
GOMEZ 1967
PRL 18 1022 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Cosmic Rays near Sea Level
KASHA 1967
PR 154 1263 Search for Charge 2/3 Quarks Produced by Cosmic Rays
BARTON 1966
PL 21 360 The Non-Appearance of Charge ${2\over 3}$ Quarks at Great Depths Underground
BUHLER 1966
NC 45A 520 Search for Charged ${1\over 3}$e and ${2\over 3}$e in the Cosmic Radiation
KASHA 1966
PR 150 1140 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles Produced by Cosmic Rays
LAMB 1966
PRL 17 1068 Search for Quarks in Cosmic Rays
DELISE 1965
PR 140 B458 Cosmic Ray Search for Fractionally Charged Particles
MASSAM 1965
NC 40A 589 An Upper Limit to the Existence of Charges ${2\over 3}$e in the Cosmic Radiation at 500 m Above Sea Level
BOWEN 1964
PRL 13 728 Mountain-Altitude Quest for Fractionally Charged Particles
SUNYAR 1964
PR 136 B1157 Search for Charge 1/3e Particles in Cosmic Rays