Quark Flux $-$ Accelerator Searches INSPIRE search

The definition of FLUX depends on the experiment

(a)is the ratio of measured free quarks to predicted free quarks if there is no ``confinement.'' (b)is the probability of fractional charge on nuclear fragments. Energy is in GeV/nucleon. (c)is the 90$\%$CL upper limit on fractionally-charged particles produced per interaction. (d)is quarks per collision. (e)is inclusive quark-production cross-section ratio to ${\mathit \sigma (}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \mu}^{+}}{{\mathit \mu}^{-}}{)}$. (f)is quark flux per charged particle. (g)is the flux per ${{\mathit \nu}}$-event. (h)is quark yield per ${{\mathit \pi}^{-}}$ yield. (i)is 2-body exclusive quark-production cross-section ratio to ${\mathit \sigma (}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \mu}^{+}}{{\mathit \mu}^{-}}{)}$.
FLUX CHG ${\mathrm {(\mathit e/3)}}$ MASS ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ ENRGY ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ BEAM EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN
$ \text{<1.6E-3} $ $\text{b}$ see note $200$ ${}^{32}\mathrm {S}--{}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$ 0 1
HUENTRUP
1996
PLAS
$ \text{<6.2E-4} $ $\text{b}$ see note $\text{10.6}$ ${}^{32}\mathrm {S}--{}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$ 0 1
HUENTRUP
1996
PLAS
$ \text{<0.94E-4} $ e $\pm2$ $2 - 30$ $\text{88 - 94}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
AKERS
1995R
OPAL
$ \text{<1.7E-4} $ e $\pm2$ $30 - 40$ $\text{88 - 94}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
AKERS
1995R
OPAL
$ \text{<3.6E-4} $ e $\pm4$ $5 - 30$ $\text{88 - 94}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
AKERS
1995R
OPAL
$ \text{<1.9E-4} $ e $\pm4$ $30 - 45$ $\text{88 - 94}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
AKERS
1995R
OPAL
$ \text{<2.E-3} $ e $+1$ $5 - 40$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0 2
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<6.E-4} $ e $+2$ $5 - 30$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0 2
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<1.2E-3} $ e $+4$ $15 - 40$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0 2
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<3.6E-4} $ i $+4$ $5.0 - 10.2$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<3.6E-4} $ i $+4$ $16.5 - 26.0$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<6.9E-4} $ i $+4$ $26.0 - 33.3$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<9.1E-4} $ i $+4$ $33.3 - 38.6$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<1.1E-3} $ i $+4$ $38.6 - 44.9$ $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BUSKULIC
1993C
ALEP
$ \text{<1.6E-4} $ $\text{b}$ see note $\text{see note}$ 0 3
CECCHINI
1993
PLAS
$ \text{} $ b 4,5,7,8 $\text{2.1A}$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}$ 0,2,0,6 4
GHOSH
1992
EMUL
$ \text{<6.4E-5} $ g 1 ${{\mathit \nu}},{{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}$ 1 5
BASILE
1991
CNTR
$ \text{<3.7E-5} $ g 2 ${{\mathit \nu}},{{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}$ 0 5
BASILE
1991
CNTR
$ \text{<3.9E-5} $ g 1 ${{\mathit \nu}},{{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}$ 1 6
BASILE
1991
CNTR
$ \text{<2.8E-5} $ g 2 ${{\mathit \nu}},{{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}$ 0 6
BASILE
1991
CNTR
$ \text{<1.9E-4} $ c $\text{14.5A}$ ${}^{28}\mathrm {Si}-$Pb 0 7
HE
1991
PLAS
$ \text{<3.9E-4} $ c $\text{14.5A}$ ${}^{28}\mathrm {Si}-$Cu 0 7
HE
1991
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-9} $ c $\pm1$,2,4 $\text{14.5A}$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-$Ar 0
MATIS
1991
MDRP
$ \text{<5.1E-10} $ c $\pm1$,2,4 $\text{14.5A}$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-$Hg 0
MATIS
1991
MDRP
$ \text{<8.1E-9} $ c $\pm1$,2,4 $\text{14.5A}$ Si$-$Hg 0
MATIS
1991
MDRP
$ \text{<1.7E-6} $ c $\pm1$,2,4 $60$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-$Hg 0
MATIS
1991
MDRP
$ \text{<3.5E-7} $ c $\pm1$,2,4 $200$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-$Hg 0
MATIS
1991
MDRP
$ \text{<1.3E-6} $ c $\pm1$,2,4 $200$ S$-$Hg 0
MATIS
1991
MDRP
$ \text{<5E-2} $ e 2 $19 - 27$ $\text{52 - 60}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
ADACHI
1990C
TOPZ
$ \text{<5E-2} $ e 4 $<$24 $\text{52 - 60}$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
ADACHI
1990C
TOPZ
$ \text{<1.E-4} $ e $+2$ $<3.5$ $10$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BOWCOCK
1989B
CLEO
$ \text{<1.E-6} $ d $\pm1$,2 $60$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-$Hg 0
CALLOWAY
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<3.5E-7} $ d $\pm1$,2 $200$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-$Hg 0
CALLOWAY
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<1.3E-6} $ d $\pm1$,2 $200$ ${}^{}\mathrm {S}-$Hg 0
CALLOWAY
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<1.2E-10} $ d $\pm1$ $1$ $800$ ${{\mathit p}}-{}^{}\mathrm {Hg}$ 0
MATIS
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<1.1E-10} $ d $\pm2$ $1$ $800$ ${{\mathit p}}-{}^{}\mathrm {Hg}$ 0
MATIS
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<1.2E-10} $ d $\pm1$ $1$ $800$ ${{\mathit p}}-{}^{}\mathrm {N}_{2}$ 0
MATIS
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<7.7E-11} $ d $\pm2$ $1$ $800$ ${{\mathit p}}-{}^{}\mathrm {N}_{2}$ 0
MATIS
1989
MDRP
$ \text{<6.E-9} $ h $-5$ $0.9 - 2.3$ $12$ ${{\mathit p}}$ 0
NAKAMURA
1989
SPEC
$ \text{<5.E-5} $ g 1,2 $<0.5$ ${{\mathit \nu}}$, ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}{{\mathit d}}$ 0
ALLASIA
1988
BEBC
$ \text{<3.E-4} $ b See note $14.5$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-{}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$ 0 8
HOFFMANN
1988
PLAS
$ \text{<2.E-4} $ b See note $200$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-{}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$ 0 9
HOFFMANN
1988
PLAS
$ \text{<8E-5} $ $\text{b}$ 19,20,22,23 $200$
GERBIER
1987
PLAS
$ \text{<2.E-4} $ a $\pm1$,2 $<300$ $320$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}{{\mathit p}}$ 0
LYONS
1987
MLEV
$ \text{<1.E-9} $ c $\pm1$,2,4,5 $14.5$ ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}-{}^{}\mathrm {Hg}$ 0
SHAW
1987
MDRP
$ \text{<3.E-3} $ d $-1$,2,3,4,6 $<5$ $2$ ${}^{}\mathrm {Si}-{}^{}\mathrm {Si}$ 0 10
ABACHI
1986C
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-4} $ e $\pm1$,2,4 $<4$ $10$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
ALBRECHT
1985G
ARG
$ \text{<6.E-5} $ b $\pm1$,2 1 $540$ ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 0
BANNER
1985
UA2
$ \text{<5.E-3} $ e $-4$ 1$-$8 $29$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
AIHARA
1984
TPC
$ \text{<1.E-2} $ e $\pm1$,2 1$-$13 $29$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
AIHARA
1984B
TPC
$ \text{<2.E-4} $ b $\pm1$ $72$ ${}^{40}\mathrm {Ar}$ 0 11
BARWICK
1984
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-4} $ e $\pm2$ $<0.4$ $1.4$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BONDAR
1984
OLYA
$ \text{<5.E-1} $ e $\pm1$,2 $<13$ $29$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
GURYN
1984
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-3} $ b $\pm1$,2 $<2$ $540$ ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 0
BANNER
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-4} $ b $\pm1$,2 $106$ ${}^{56}\mathrm {Fe}$ 0
LINDGREN
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-3} $ b $>\vert \pm0.1\vert $ $74$ ${}^{40}\mathrm {Ar}$ 0 11
PRICE
1983
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-2} $ e $\pm1$,2 $<14$ $29$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
MARINI
1982B
CNTR
$ \text{<8.E-2} $ e $\pm1$,2 $<12$ $29$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
ROSS
1982
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-4} $ e $\pm2$ $1.8-$2 $7$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
WEISS
1981
MRK2
$ \text{<5.E-2} $ e $+1$,2,4,5 2$-$12 $27$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0
BARTEL
1980
JADE
$ \text{<2.E-5} $ g $1$,2 ${{\mathit \nu}}$ 0 6, 5
BASILE
1980
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-10} $ f $\pm2$,4 1$-$3 $200$ ${{\mathit p}}$ 0 12
BOZZOLI
1979
CNTR
$ \text{<6.E-11} $ f $\pm1$ $<21$ $52$ ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 0
BASILE
1978
SPEC
$ \text{<5.E-3} $ g ${{\mathit \nu}_{{\mu}}}$ 0
BASILE
1978B
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-9} $ f $\pm1$ $<26$ $62$ ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 0
BASILE
1977
SPEC
$ \text{<7.E-10} $ f $+1$,2 $<20$ $52$ ${{\mathit p}}$ 0 13
FABJAN
1975
CNTR
$ $ $+1$,2 $>4.5$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ 0 6, 5
GALIK
1974
CNTR
$ $ $+1$,2 $>1.5$ $12$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 0 6, 5
BELLAMY
1968
CNTR
$ $ $+1$,2 $>0.9$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ 0 6
BATHOW
1967
CNTR
$ $ $+1$,2 $>0.9$ $6$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ 0 6
FOSS
1967
CNTR
1  HUENTRUP 1996 quote 95$\%$ CL limits for production of fragments with charge differing by as much as $\pm1$/3 (in units of e) for charge 6${}\leq{}Z{}\leq{}$10.
2  BUSKULIC 1993C limits for inclusive quark production are more conservative if the ALEPH hadronic fragmentation function is assumed.
3  CECCHINI 1993 limit at 90$\%$CL for 23/3 ${}\leq{}Z{}\leq{}$40/3, for 16$\mathit A$ GeV O, 14.5$\mathit A$ Si, and 200$\mathit A$ S incident on Cu target. Other limits are $2.3 \times 10^{-4}$ for 17/3${}\leq{}Z{}\leq{}$20/3 and $1.2 \times 10^{-4}$ for 20/3 ${}\leq{}Z{}\leq{}$23/3.
4  GHOSH 1992 reports measurement of spallation fragment charge based on ionization in emulsion. Out of 650 measured tracks, 2 were consistent with charge 5${{\mathit e}}$/3, and 4 with 7${{\mathit e}}$/3.
5  Hadronic quark.
6  Leptonic quark.
7  HE 1991 limits are for charges of the form $\mathit N\pm1$/3 from 23/3 to 38/3, and correspond to cross-section limits of 380$\mu $b$~$(Pb) and 320$\mu $b$~$(Cu).
8  The limits apply to projectile fragment charges of 17, 19, 20, 22, 23 in units of $\mathit e$/3.
9  The limits apply to projectile fragment charges of 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23 in units of $\mathit e$/3.
10  Flux limits and mass range depend on charge.
11  Bound to nuclei.
12  Quark lifetimes $>1 \times 10^{-8}$ s.
13  One candidate $\mathit m$ $<$0.17 GeV.
  References:
HUENTRUP 1996
PR C53 358 Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclear Fragments in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions
AKERS 1995R
ZPHY C67 203 Search for Heavy Charged Particles and for Particles with Anomalous Charge in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at LEP
BUSKULIC 1993C
PL B303 198 Search for Particles with Unexpected Mass and Charge in ${{\mathit Z}}$ Decays
CECCHINI 1993
ASP 1 369 Fragmentation Cross Sections and Search for Nuclear Fragments with Fractional Charge in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions
GHOSH 1992
NC 105A 99 Measurement of Charge of Projectile Fragments. Search for Fractionally Charged Projectile Fragments
BASILE 1991
NC 104A 405 Results of a Search for Free Quarks with a Large Avalanche Chamber in High Energy Neutrino Interactions
HE 1991
PR C44 1672 Search for Fractional Charge States in High Energy Heavy Fragments Produced in Collisions at 14.5 A GeV ${}^{28}\mathrm {Si}$ with ${}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$ and ${}^{}\mathrm {Cu}$ Target
MATIS 1991
NP A525 513 Search for Free Quarks Produced in Ultrarelativistic Collisions at BNL and CERN
ADACHI 1990C
PL B244 352 Search for Pair Production of Heavy Stable Particles at TRISTAN
BOWCOCK 1989B
PR D40 263 Search for the Production of Fractionally Charged Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilations at $\sqrt {s }$ = 10.5 GeV
CALLOWAY 1989
PL B232 549 A Search for Free Quarks in Heavy-Ions Collisions at 60 and 200 GeV/Nucleon
MATIS 1989
PR D39 1851 Search for Free Quarks Produced at 800 ${\mathrm {GeV/}}\mathit c$ Using a New Concentration Technique
NAKAMURA 1989
PR D39 1261 Search for Long Lived Exotic Particles in 12 GeV Proton-Nucleus Interactions
ALLASIA 1988
PR D37 219 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in (Anti)neutrino-Deuterium Interactions
HOFFMANN 1988
PL B200 583 Search for Projectile Fragments with Fractional Charge in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions
GERBIER 1987
PRL 59 2535 Charges and Angular Distributions of Fast Fragments Produced in 3.2 TeV ${}^{16}\mathrm {O}$ Collisions with ${}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$
LYONS 1987
ZPHY C36 363 Search for Free Quark Production at the CERN SPS Collider
SHAW 1987
PR D36 3533 Search for Free Quarks Produced by 14.5 GeV/Nucleon Oxygen Ions
ABACHI 1986C
PR D33 2733 Search for Production of Fractional Charges, New Particles, and Subthreshold Antiprotons, in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
ALBRECHT 1985G
PL 156B 134 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles Produced in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
BANNER 1985
PL 156B 129 A New Search for Relativistic Particles with Fractional Electric Charge at the CERN ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collider
AIHARA 1984
PRL 52 168 Search for Charge 4/3 Particles Produced in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
AIHARA 1984B
PRL 52 2332 Search for q = 2/3e and q = 1/3e Particles Produced in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
BARWICK 1984
PR D30 691 Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions
BONDAR 1984
JETPL 40 1265 Search of Light Particles with Charge = 2/3 in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
GURYN 1984
PL 139B 313 Search for Highly Interacting Fractionally Charged Particles in Electron Positron Annihilation at 29 GeV
BANNER 1983
PL 121B 187 A Search for Relativistic Particles with Fractional Electric Charge at the CERN ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collider
LINDGREN 1983
PRL 51 1621 Search for Fractional Charges Produced in Heavy Ion Collisions at 1.9 GeV/Nucleon
PRICE 1983
PRL 50 566 Search for Nonintegrally Charged Projectile Fragments in Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions
MARINI 1982B
PRL 48 1649 Search for Exclusive Free Quark Production in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
ROSS 1982
PL 118B 199 An Inclusive Search for Free Quarks at PEP
WEISS 1981
PL 101B 439 A Search for Stable Particles Heavier than the Proton and for Q = -2/3 Quarks Produced in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation
BARTEL 1980
ZPHY C6 295 Search for Fractional Charge and Heavy Stable Particles at PETRA
BASILE 1980
LNC 29 251 Results of the Quark Search Experiment in High Energy Neutrino Interactions
BOZZOLI 1979
NP B159 363 Search for Longlived Particles in 200 ${\mathrm {GeV/}}\mathit c$ Proton Nucleon Collisions
BASILE 1978
NC 45A 171 Search for Quarks in Proton Proton Interactions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 52.5 GeV
BASILE 1978B
NC 45A 281 A Search for Quarks in the CERN SPS Neutrino Beam
BASILE 1977
NC 40A 41 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles Produced in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at the Highest ISR Energy
FABJAN 1975
NP B101 349 A Search for Fractionally Charged Particles at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings
GALIK 1974
PR D9 1856 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles Photoproduced from Copper
BELLAMY 1968
PR 166 1391 A Search for Fractionally Charged Particles
BATHOW 1967
PL 25B 163 Search for Leptonic Quarks in the Mass Range 100 to 900 MeV
FOSS 1967
PL 25B 166 A Search for Leptonic Quarks