Quark Density $-$ Matter Searches INSPIRE search

QUARKS/ NUCLEON CHG ${\mathrm {(\mathit e/3)}}$ MASS ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ MATERIAL/METHOD EVTS DOCUMENT ID
$ \text{<1.17E-22} $ silicone oil drops 0 1
LEE
2002
$ \text{<4.71E-22} $ silicone oil drops 1 2
HALYO
2000
$ \text{<4.7E-21} $ $\pm1$,2 silicone oil drops 0
MAR
1996
$ \text{<8.E-22} $ $+2$ ${}^{}\mathrm {Si}$/infrared photoionization 0
PERERA
1993
$ \text{<5.E-27} $ $\pm1$,2 sea water/levitation 0
HOMER
1992
$ \text{<4.E-20} $ $\pm1$,2 meteorites/mag. levitation 0
JONES
1989
$ \text{<1.E-19} $ $\pm1$,2 various/spectrometer 0
MILNER
1987
$ \text{<5.E-22} $ $\pm1$,2 ${}^{}\mathrm {W}$/levitation 0
SMITH
1987
$ \text{<3.E-20} $ $+1$,2 org liq/droplet tower 0
VANPOLEN
1987
$ \text{<6.E-20} $ $-1$,2 org liq/droplet tower 0
VANPOLEN
1987
$ \text{<3.E-21} $ $\pm1$ ${}^{}\mathrm {Hg}$ drops-untreated 0
SAVAGE
1986
$ \text{<3.E-22} $ $\pm1$,2 levitated niobium 0
SMITH
1986
$ \text{<2.E-26} $ $\pm1$,2 ${}^{4}\mathrm {He}$/levitation 0
SMITH
1986B
$ \text{<2.E-20} $ $> \pm1$ $0.2-$250 niobium+tungs/ion 0
MILNER
1985
$ \text{<1.E-21} $ $\pm1$ levitated niobium 0
SMITH
1985
$ $ $+1$,2 $<100$ niobium/mass spec 0
KUTSCHERA
1984
$ \text{<5.E-22} $ levitated steel 0
MARINELLI
1984
$ \text{<9.E-20} $ $\text{<13}$ water/oil drop 0
JOYCE
1983
$ \text{<2.E-21} $ $>\vert \pm1/2\vert $ levitated steel 0
LIEBOWITZ
1983
$ \text{<1.E-19} $ $\pm1$,2 photo ion spec 0
VANDESTEEG
1983
$ \text{<2.E-20} $ mercury/oil drop 0 3
HODGES
1981
$ \text{1.E-20} $ $+1$ levitated niobium 4 4
LARUE
1981
$ \text{1.E-20} $ $-1$ levitated niobium 4 4
LARUE
1981
$ \text{<1.E-21} $ levitated steel 0
MARINELLI
1980B
$ \text{<6.E-16} $ helium/mass spec 0
BOYD
1979
$ \text{1.E-20} $ $+1$ levitated niobium 2 4
LARUE
1979
$ \text{<4.E-28} $ earth+/ion beam 0
OGORODNIKOV
1979
$ \text{<5.E-15} $ $+1$ tungs./mass spec 0
BOYD
1978
$ \text{<5.E-16} $ $+3$ $<1.7$ hydrogen/mass spec 0
BOYD
1978B
$ \text{<1.E-21} $ $\pm2$,4 water/ion beam 0
LUND
1978
$ \text{<6.E-15} $ $>$1/2 levitated tungsten 0
PUTT
1978
$ \text{<1.E-22} $ metals/mass spec 0
SCHIFFER
1978
$ \text{<5.E-15} $ levitated tungsten ox 0
BLAND
1977
$ \text{<3.E-21} $ levitated iron 0
GALLINARO
1977
$ \text{2.E-21} $ $-1$ levitated niobium 1 4
LARUE
1977
$ \text{4.E-21} $ $+1$ levitated niobium 2 4
LARUE
1977
$ \text{<1.E-13} $ $+3$ $<7.7$ hydrogen/mass spec 0
MULLER
1977
$ \text{<5.E-27} $ water+/ion beam 0
OGORODNIKOV
1977
$ \text{<1.E-21} $ lunar+/ion spec 0
STEVENS
1976
$ \text{<1.E-15} $ $+1$ $<60$ oxygen+/ion spec 0
ELBERT
1970
$ \text{<5.E-19} $ levitated graphite 0
MORPURGO
1970
$ \text{<5.E-23} $ water+/atom beam 0
COOK
1969
$ \text{<1.E-17} $ $\pm1$,2 levitated graphite 0
BRAGINSK
1968
$ \text{<1.E-17} $ water+/uv spec 0
RANK
1968
$ \text{<3.E-19} $ $\pm1$ levitated iron 0
STOVER
1967
$ \text{<1.E-10} $ sun/uv spec 0 5
BENNETT
1966
$ \text{<1.E-17} $ $+1$,2 meteorites+/ion beam 0
CHUPKA
1966
$ \text{<1.E-16} $ $\pm1$ levitated graphite 0
GALLINARO
1966
$ \text{<1.E-22} $ argon/electrometer 0
HILLAS
1959
$ $ $-2$ levitated oil 0
MILLIKAN
1910
1  95$\%$ CL limit for fractional charge particles with 0.18$\mathit e{}\leq{}\vert Q_{residual}\vert {}\leq{}0.82\mathit e$ in total of 70.1 mg of silicone oil.
2  95$\%$ CL limit for particles with fractional charge $\vert Q_{residual}\vert >$0.16e in total of 17.4~mg of silicone oil.
3  Also set limits for $\mathit Q$ = $\pm{}\mathit e$/6.
4  Note that in PHILLIPS 1988 these authors report a subtle magnetic effect which could account for the apparent fractional charges.
5  Limit inferred by JONES 1977B.
  References:
LEE 2002
PR D66 012002 Large Bulk Matter Search for Fractional Charge Particles
HALYO 2000
PRL 84 2576 Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles
MAR 1996
PR D53 6017 An Improved Search for Elementary Particles with Fractional Electric Charge
PERERA 1993
PRL 70 1053 Search for Fractional-Charge Impurities in Silicon Using Infrared Photoionization and Field Ionization
HOMER 1992
ZPHY C55 549 A Search for Fractional Electric Charge in Sea Water
JONES 1989
ZPHY C43 349 Search for Fractional Electric Charge in Meteorite Samples
MILNER 1987
PR D36 37 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles
SMITH 1987
PL B197 447 Searches for Fractional Electric Charge in Tungsten
VANPOLEN 1987
PR D36 1983 Search for Fractional Charges using Droplet Jet Techniques
SAVAGE 1986
PL 167B 481 A Search for Fractional Charges in Native Mercury
SMITH 1986B
PL B181 407 Searches for Fractional Electric Charge on Niobium Samples Exposed to Liquid Helium
SMITH 1986
PL B171 129 A Search for Fractional Charge Changes on Levitated Niobium Spheres
MILNER 1985
PRL 54 1472 Search for Fractional Charges in Niobium and Tungsten
SMITH 1985
PL 153B 188 A Search for Fractional Electric Charge on Levitated Niobium Spheres
KUTSCHERA 1984
PR D29 791 Cryogenic Search for Fractionally Charged Particles
MARINELLI 1984
PL 137B 439 The Electric Neutrality of Matter: a Summary
JOYCE 1983
PRL 51 731 Search for Fractional Charges in Water
LIEBOWITZ 1983
PRL 50 1640 Search for Fractional Charges
VANDESTEEG 1983
PRL 50 1234 Spectroscopic Search for Fractional Charge in Ultrapure Semiconductors
HODGES 1981
PRL 47 1651 Results of a Search for Fractional Charges on Mercury Drops
LARUE 1981
PRL 46 967 Observation of Fractional Charge of (1/3)e on Matter
MARINELLI 1980B
PL 94B 433 Confirmation of the Electric Neutrality of Matter at the Milligram Level
BOYD 1979
PRL 43 1288 Search for Fractionally Charged Ions in Helium Gas
LARUE 1979
PRL 42 142 Further Evidence for Fractional Charge on Matter
OGORODNIKOV 1979
JETP 49 953 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Large Samples of Matter
BOYD 1978B
PL 72B 484 A Search for Integrally Charged Quarks
BOYD 1978
PRL 40 216 A Search for Fractionally Charged Tungsten Ions
LUND 1978
RA 25 75 Search for Quarks in Sea-Water and Fresh Water
PUTT 1978
PR D17 1466 Search for Fractional Charge in Tungsten
SCHIFFER 1978
PR D17 2241 Search for +1/3e Fractional Charges in ${}^{}\mathrm {Nb}$, ${{\mathit W}}$, and ${}^{}\mathrm {Fe}$ Metal
BLAND 1977
PRL 39 369 A Search for Fractional Charge on Tungsten Particles
GALLINARO 1977
PRL 38 1255 The Electric Neutrality of Matter
LARUE 1977
PRL 38 1011 Evidence for the Existence of Fractional Charge on Matter
MULLER 1977
SCI 196 521 Quarks with Unit Charge: a Search for Anomalous Hydrogen
OGORODNIKOV 1977
JETP 45 857 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Sea Water, Ocean Sediment Deposits and Volcano Lava
STEVENS 1976
PR D14 716 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles in Lunar Soil
ELBERT 1970
NP B20 217 A Quark Search in Ordinary Matter using Simultaneous Measurement of Mass and Charge
MORPURGO 1970
NIM 79 95 The Magnetic Levitation Electrometer and Its Use in the Search for Fractionally Charged Particles
COOK 1969
PR 188 2092 Search for Fractionally Charged Particles
BRAGINSK 1968
JETP 27 51 :none.:
RANK 1968
PR 176 1635 Search for Stable Fractionally Charged Particles
STOVER 1967
PR 164 1599 Search for an Electron Proton Charge Inequality by Charge Measurements on an Isolated Macroscopic Body
BENNETT 1966
PRL 17 1196 Detection of Quarks in the Ultraviolet Solar Spectrum
CHUPKA 1966
PRL 17 60 Experimental Search for Stable, Fractionally Charged Particles
GALLINARO 1966
PL 23 609 Preliminary Results in the Search for Fractionally Charged Particles by the Magnetic Levitation Electrometer
HILLAS 1959
NAT 184 B92 A Comparison of the Charges of the Electron, Proton and Neutron
MILLIKAN 1910
Phil Mag 19 209 A New Modification of the Gloud Method of Determining the Elementary Electrical Charge and the most Probable Value of that Charge