Monopole Production Cross Section $-$ Accelerator Searches INSPIRE search

X-SECT (cm${}^{2}$) MASS ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ CHG ${\mathrm {(\mathit g)}}$ ENERGY ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ BEAM DOCUMENT ID TECN
1
ACHARYA
2018A
INDU
$ \text{<2.5E-37} $ $200 - 6000$ 1 13000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 2
ACHARYA
2017
INDU
$ \text{<2E-37} $ $200 - 6000$ 2 13000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 2
ACHARYA
2017
INDU
$ \text{<4E-37} $ $200 - 5000$ 3 13000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 2
ACHARYA
2017
INDU
$ \text{<1.5E-36} $ $400 - 4000$ 4 13000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 2
ACHARYA
2017
INDU
$ \text{<7E-36} $ $1000 - 3000$ 5 13000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 2
ACHARYA
2017
INDU
$ \text{<5E-40} $ $200 - 2500$ $0.5 - 2.0$ 8000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 3
AAD
2016AB
ATLS
$ \text{<2E-37} $ $100 - 3500$ 1 8000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 4
ACHARYA
2016
INDU
$ \text{<2E-37} $ $100 - 3500$ 2 8000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 4
ACHARYA
2016
INDU
$ \text{<6E-37} $ $500 - 3000$ 3 8000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 4
ACHARYA
2016
INDU
$ \text{<7E-36} $ $1000 - 2000$ 4 8000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 4
ACHARYA
2016
INDU
$ \text{<1.6E-38} $ $200 - 1200$ 1 7000 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 5
AAD
2012CS
ATLS
$ \text{<5E-38} $ $45 - 102$ 1 206 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ 6
ABBIENDI
2008
OPAL
$ \text{<0.2E-36} $ $200 - 700$ 1 1960 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 7
ABULENCIA
2006K
CNTR
$ \text{< 2.E-36} $ 1 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 9
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 0.2 E-36} $ 2 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 9
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 0.09E-36} $ 3 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 9
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 0.05E-36} $ ${}\geq{}$6 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 9
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 2.E-36} $ 1 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 10
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 0.2E-36} $ 2 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 10
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 0.07E-36} $ 3 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 10
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{< 0.06E-36} $ ${}\geq{}$6 300 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit p}}$ 8, 10
AKTAS
2005A
INDU
$ \text{<0.6E-36} $ >265 1 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 11
KALBFLEISCH
2004
INDU
$ \text{<0.2E-36} $ >355 2 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 11
KALBFLEISCH
2004
INDU
$ \text{<0.07E-36} $ >410 3 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 11
KALBFLEISCH
2004
INDU
$ \text{<0.2E-36} $ >375 6 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 11
KALBFLEISCH
2004
INDU
$ \text{<0.7E-36} $ >295 1 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 12, 13
KALBFLEISCH
2000
INDU
$ \text{<7.8E-36} $ >260 2 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 12, 13
KALBFLEISCH
2000
INDU
$ \text{<2.3E-36} $ >325 3 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 12, 14
KALBFLEISCH
2000
INDU
$ \text{<0.11E-36} $ >420 6 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ 12, 14
KALBFLEISCH
2000
INDU
$ \text{<0.65E-33} $ <3.3 ${}\geq{}$2 11$\mathit A$ ${}^{197}\mathrm {Au}$ 15, 16
HE
1997
$ \text{<1.90E-33} $ <8.1 ${}\geq{}$2 160$\mathit A$ ${}^{208}\mathrm {Pb}$ 15, 16
HE
1997
$ \text{<3.E-37} $ <45.0 1.0 $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
PINFOLD
1993
PLAS
$ \text{<3.E-37} $ <41.6 2.0 $88 - 94$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
PINFOLD
1993
PLAS
$ \text{<7.E-35} $ <44.9 $0.2 - 1.0$ $89 - 93$ ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
KINOSHITA
1992
PLAS
$ \text{<2.E-34} $ <850 ${}\geq{}$0.5 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$
BERTANI
1990
PLAS
$ \text{<1.2E-33} $ <800 ${}\geq{}$1 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$
PRICE
1990
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-37} $ <29 1 50$-$61 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
KINOSHITA
1989
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-37} $ <18 2 50$-$61 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
KINOSHITA
1989
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-38} $ <17 <1 35 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
BRAUNSCHWEIG
1988B
CNTR
$ \text{<8.E-37} $ <24 1 50$-$52 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
KINOSHITA
1988
PLAS
$ \text{<1.3E-35} $ <22 2 50$-$52 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
KINOSHITA
1988
PLAS
$ \text{<9.E-37} $ <4 <0.15 10.6 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
GENTILE
1987
CLEO
$ \text{<3.E-32} $ <800 ${}\geq{}$1 1800 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$
PRICE
1987
PLAS
$ \text{<3.E-38} $ <3 29 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
FRYBERGER
1984
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-31} $ 1,3 540 ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$
AUBERT
1983B
PLAS
$ \text{<4.E-38} $ <10 <6 34 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
MUSSET
1983
PLAS
$ \text{<8.E-36} $ <20 52 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 17
DELL
1982
CNTR
$ \text{<9.E-37} $ <30 <3 29 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$
KINOSHITA
1982
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-37} $ <20 <24 63 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$
CARRIGAN
1978
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-37} $ <30 <3 56 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$
HOFFMANN
1978
PLAS
$ $ 62 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ 17
DELL
1976
SPRK
$ \text{<4.E-33} $ 300 ${{\mathit p}}$ 17
STEVENS
1976B
SPRK
$ \text{<1.E-40} $ <5 <2 70 ${{\mathit p}}$ 18
ZRELOV
1976
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-30} $ 300 ${{\mathit n}}$ 17
BURKE
1975
OSPK
$ \text{<1.E-38} $ 8 ${{\mathit \nu}}$ 19
CARRIGAN
1975
HLBC
$ \text{<5.E-43} $ <12 <10 400 ${{\mathit p}}$
EBERHARD
1975B
INDU
$ \text{<2.E-36} $ <30 <3 60 ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$
GIACOMELLI
1975
PLAS
$ \text{<5.E-42} $ <13 <24 400 ${{\mathit p}}$
CARRIGAN
1974
CNTR
$ \text{<6.E-42} $ <12 <24 300 ${{\mathit p}}$
CARRIGAN
1973
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-36} $ 1 0.001 ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ 18
BARTLETT
1972
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-41} $ <5 70 ${{\mathit p}}$
GUREVICH
1972
EMUL
$ \text{<1.E-40} $ <3 <2 28 ${{\mathit p}}$
AMALDI
1963
EMUL
$ \text{<2.E-40} $ <3 <2 30 ${{\mathit p}}$
PURCELL
1963
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-35} $ <3 <4 28 ${{\mathit p}}$
FIDECARO
1961
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-35} $ <1 1 6 ${{\mathit p}}$
BRADNER
1959
EMUL
1  ACHARYA 2018A provide limits on monopoles with spins 0, 1/2, and 1 and with magnetic charges ranging from two to five times the Dirac charge.
2  The search was sensitive to monopoles which had stopped in aluminium trapping volumes. Monopoles with spins 0 and 1/2 were considered; mass-dependent spin 1/2 monopole limits are quoted here.
3  AAD 2016AB model-independent 95$\%$ CL limits estimated using a fiducial region of approximately constant acceptance. Limits are mass-dependent.
4  ACHARYA 2016 limits at 95$\%$ CL estimated using a Drell-Yan-like production mechanism for scalar monopoles.
5  AAD 2012CS searched for monopoles as highly ionising objects. The cross section limits are based on an assumed Drell Yan-like production process for spin 1/2 monopoles. The limits are mass- and scenario-dependent.
6  ABBIENDI 2008 assume production of spin 1/2 monopoles with effective charge $\mathit g\beta $ (n=1), via ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}^{*}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit M}}{{\overline{\mathit M}}}$ , so that the cross section is proportional to (1 + cos $^2\theta $). There is no $\mathit z$ information for such highly saturated tracks, so a parabolic track in the jet chamber is projected onto the $\mathit xy$ plane. Charge per hit in the chamber produces a clean separation of signal and background.
7  ABULENCIA 2006K searches for high-ionizing signals in CDF central outer tracker and time-of-flight detector. For Drell-Yan ${{\mathit M}}{{\overline{\mathit M}}}$ production, the cross section limit implies ${{\mathit M}}$ $>$ 360 GeV at 95$\%$ CL.
8  AKTAS 2005A model-dependent limits as a function of monopole mass shown for arbitrary mass of 60 GeV. Based on search for stopped monopoles in the H1 Al beam pipe.
9  AKTAS 2005A limits with assumed elastic spin 0 monopole pair production.
10  AKTAS 2005A limits with assumed inelastic spin 1/2 monopole pair production.
11  KALBFLEISCH 2004 reports searches for stopped magnetic monopoles in ${}^{}\mathrm {Be}$, ${}^{}\mathrm {Al}$, and ${}^{}\mathrm {Pb}$ samples obtained from discarded material from the upgrading of ${D0}$ and CDF. A large-aperture warm-bore cryogenic detector was used. The approach was an extension of the methods of KALBFLEISCH 2000 . Cross section results moderately model dependent; interpretation as a mass lower limit depends on possibly invalid perturbation expansion.
12  KALBFLEISCH 2000 used an induction method to search for stopped monopoles in pieces of the ${D0}$ (FNAL) beryllium beam pipe and in extensions to the drift chamber aluminum support cylinder. Results are model dependent.
13  KALBFLEISCH 2000 result is for aluminum.
14  KALBFLEISCH 2000 result is for beryllium.
15  HE 1997 used a lead target and barium phosphate glass detectors. Cross-section limits are well below those predicted via the Drell-Yan mechanism.
16  This work has also been reinterpreted in the framework of monopole production via the thermal Schwinger process (GOULD 2017 ); this gives rise to lower mass limits.
17  Multiphoton events.
18  Cherenkov radiation polarization.
19  Re-examines CERN neutrino experiments.
  References:
ACHARYA 2018A
PL B782 510 Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL forward trapping detector in 2.11 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC
ACHARYA 2017
PRL 118 061801 Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the MoEDAL Forward Trapping Detector in 13 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC
AAD 2016AB
PR D93 052009 Search for Magnetic Monopoles and Stable Particles with High Electric Charges in 8 TeV ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions with the ATLAS Detector
ACHARYA 2016
JHEP 1608 067 Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the MoEDAL Prototype Trapping Detector in 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC
AAD 2012CS
PRL 109 261803 Search for Magnetic Monopoles in $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions with the ATLAS Detector
ABBIENDI 2008
PL B663 37 Search for Dirac Magnetic Monopoles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions with the OPAL Detector at LEP2
ABULENCIA 2006K
PRL 96 201801 Direct Search for Dirac Magnetic Monopoles in ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96 TeV
AKTAS 2005A
EPJ C41 133 A Direct Search for Stable Magnetic Monopoles Produced in Positron$−$Proton Collisions at HERA
KALBFLEISCH 2004
PR D69 052002 Limits on Production of Magnetic Monopoles Utilizing Samples from the ${{\mathit D}^{0}}$ and CDF Detectors at the Tevatron
KALBFLEISCH 2000
PRL 85 5292 Improved Experimental Limits on the Production of Magnetic Monopoles
HE 1997
PRL 79 3134 Search for a Dirac Magnetic Monopole in High Energy Nucleus Nucleus Collisions
PINFOLD 1993
PL B316 407 A Search for Highly Ionizing Particles Produced at the OPAL Interaction Points at LEP
KINOSHITA 1992
PR D46 881 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilations at $\sqrt {s }$ = 91.1 GeV
BERTANI 1990
EPL 12 613 Search for Magnetic Monopoles at the Tevatron Collider
PRICE 1990
PRL 65 149 High Luminosity Search for Highly Ionizing Particles at the Fermilab Collider
KINOSHITA 1989
PL B228 543 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilation at $\sqrt {s }$=50-60.8 GeV
BRAUNSCHWEIG 1988B
ZPHY C38 543 A Search for Particles with Magnetic Charge Produced in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilations at $\sqrt {s }$ = 35 GeV
KINOSHITA 1988
PRL 60 1610 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilations at $\sqrt {s }$ = 50-52 GeV
GENTILE 1987
PR D35 1081 Search for Magnetically Charged Particles Produced in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Annihilations at $\sqrt {s }$ = 10.6 GeV
PRICE 1987
PRL 59 2523 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles at the Fermilab Proton Antiproton Collider
FRYBERGER 1984
PR D29 1524 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ 29 GeV
AUBERT 1983B
PL 120B 465 Search for Magnetic Monopoles in Proton Antiproton Interactions at 540 GeV $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$
MUSSET 1983
PL 128B 333 Search for Magnetic Monopoles in Electron Positron Collisions at 34 GeV $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$
DELL 1982
NP B209 45 Multigamma Ray Events at the CERN ISR
KINOSHITA 1982
PRL 48 77 Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 29 GeV
CARRIGAN 1978
PR D17 1754 Search for Magnetic Monopoles at the CERN ISR
HOFFMANN 1978
LNC 23 357 A New Search for Magnetic Monopoles at the CERN ISR with Plastic Detectors
DELL 1976
LNC 15 269 An Investigation of High Multiplicity ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ Events in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions with $\mathit E_{{\mathrm {cm}}}$ between 22 and 62 GeV
STEVENS 1976B
PR D14 2207 Search for Multiphoton Events from Proton Nuclei Interactions at 300 ${\mathrm {GeV/}}\mathit c$
ZRELOV 1976
CZJP B26 1306 Search for the Dirac Monopole over the Vavilov-Cherenkov Radiation using the 70 GeV IHEP Proton Synchrotron
BURKE 1975
PL 60B 113 Search for Anomalous Multiphoton Production at Fermilab Energies
CARRIGAN 1975
NP B91 279 Search for Neutrino Produced Magnetic Monopoles in a Bubble Chamber Exposure
EBERHARD 1975B
LBL-4289 Status of Searches for Magnetic Monopoles
GIACOMELLI 1975
NC 28A 21 Search for Magnetic Monopoles at the CERN ISR with Plastic Detectors
CARRIGAN 1974
PR D10 3867 Extension of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Magnetic Monopole Search to 400 GeV
CARRIGAN 1973
PR D8 3717 Search for Magnetic Monopole Production by 300 GeV Protons
BARTLETT 1972
PR D6 1817 Search for Tachyon Monopoles
GUREVICH 1972
PL 38B 549 Search for Magnetic Monopoles at the 70 GeV IHEP Proton Synchrotron
AMALDI 1963
NC 28 773 Search for Dirac Magnetic Poles
PURCELL 1963
PR 129 2326 Search for the Dirac Monopole with 30 BeV Protons
FIDECARO 1961
NC 22 657 Search for Magnetic Monopoles
BRADNER 1959
PR 114 603 Search for Dirac Monopoles