Monopole Flux $-$ Cosmic Ray Searches INSPIRE search

``Caty'' in the charge column indicates a search for monopole-catalyzed nucleon decay.

FLUX (cm${}^{-2}$sr${}^{-1}$s${}^{-1}$) MASS ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ CHG ${\mathrm {(\mathit g)}}$ COMMENTS ${\mathrm {(\beta = \mathit v/\mathit c)}}$ EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN
$ \text{<1.5E-18} $ 1 $\beta >$0.6 0 1
ALBERT
2017
ANTR
$ \text{<2.5E-21} $ 1 1E8$<\gamma <$1E13 0 2
AAB
2016
AUGE
$ \text{<1.55E-18} $ $\beta >$0.51 0 3
AARTSEN
2016B
ICCB
$ \text{<1E-17} $ Caty 1E-3$<\beta <$1E-2 0 4
AARTSEN
2014
ICCB
$ \text{<3E-18} $ 1 $\beta >$0.8 0 5
ABBASI
2013
ICCB
$ \text{<1.3E-17} $ 1 $\beta >$0.625 0 6
ADRIAN-MARTIN..
2012A
ANTR
$ \text{<6E-28} $ $<$1E17 Caty 1E-5$<\beta <$0.04 0 7
UENO
2012
SKAM
$ \bf{\text{<1E-19}} $ 1 $\bf{\gamma >1E10}$ 0 8
DETRIXHE
2011
ANIT
$ \text{<3.8E-17} $ 1 $\beta >$0.76 0 5
ABBASI
2010A
ICCB
$ \text{<1.3E-15} $ 1E4$<M<$5E13 1 $\beta >$0.05 0 9
BALESTRA
2008
PLAS
$ \text{<0.65E-15} $ $>$5E13 1 $\beta >$0.05 0 9
BALESTRA
2008
PLAS
$ \bf{\text{<1E-18}} $ 1 $\bf{\gamma >1 E8}$ 0 8
HOGAN
2008
RICE
$ \bf{\text{<1.4E-16}} $ 1 $\bf{1.1E-4<\beta <1}$ 0 10
AMBROSIO
2002B
MCRO
$ \text{<3E-16} $ Caty 1.1E$-4<\beta <5E-3$ 0 11
AMBROSIO
2002C
MCRO
$ \text{<1.5E-15} $ 1 5E$-3<\beta <0.99$ 0 12
AMBROSIO
2002D
MCRO
$ \text{<1E-15} $ 1 $1.1 \times 10^{-4} - 0.1$ 0 13
AMBROSIO
1997
MCRO
$ \text{<5.6E-15} $ 1 ($0.18 - 3.0)E-3$ 0 14
AHLEN
1994
MCRO
$ \text{<2.7E-15} $ Caty $\beta $ $\sim{}1 \times 10^{-3}$ 0 15
BECKER-SZENDY
1994
IMB
$ \text{<8.7E-15} $ 1 $>2.E-3$ 0
THRON
1992
SOUD
$ \text{<4.4E-12} $ 1 all $\beta $ 0
GARDNER
1991
INDU
$ \text{<7.2E-13} $ 1 all $\beta $ 0
HUBER
1991
INDU
$ \text{<3.7E-15} $ $>$E12 1 $\beta =1.E-4$ 0 16
ORITO
1991
PLAS
$ \text{<3.2E-16} $ $>$E10 1 $\beta >0.05$ 0 16
ORITO
1991
PLAS
$ \text{<3.2E-16} $ $>E10-$E12 2,3 0 16
ORITO
1991
PLAS
$ \text{<3.8E-13} $ 1 all $\beta $ 0
BERMON
1990
INDU
$ \text{<5.E-16} $ Caty $\beta <1.E-3$ 0 15
BEZRUKOV
1990
CHER
$ \text{<1.8E-14} $ 1 $\beta >1.1E-4$ 0 17
BUCKLAND
1990
HEPT
$ \text{<1E-18} $ 3.E$-4<\beta <1.5E-3$ 0 18
GHOSH
1990
MICA
$ \text{<7.2E-13} $ 1 all $\beta $ 0
HUBER
1990
INDU
$ \text{<5.E-12} $ $>$E7 1 3.E$-4<\beta <5.E-3$ 0
BARISH
1987
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-13} $ Caty 1.E$-5<\beta <$1 0 15
BARTELT
1987
SOUD
$ \text{<1.E-10} $ 1 all $\beta $ 0
EBISU
1987
INDU
$ \text{<2.E-13} $ 1.E$-4<\beta <6.E-4$ 0
MASEK
1987
HEPT
$ \text{<2.E-14} $ 4.E$-5<\beta <2.E-4$ 0
NAKAMURA
1987
PLAS
$ \text{<2.E-14} $ 1.E$-3<\beta <$1 0
NAKAMURA
1987
PLAS
$ \text{<5.E-14} $ 9.E$-4<\beta <1.E-2$ 0
SHEPKO
1987
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-13} $ 4.E$-4<\beta <$1 0
TSUKAMOTO
1987
CNTR
$ \text{<5.E-14} $ 1 all $\beta $ 1 19
CAPLIN
1986
INDU
$ \text{<5.E-12} $ 1 0
CROMAR
1986
INDU
$ \text{<1.E-13} $ 1 7.E$-4<\beta $ 0
HARA
1986
CNTR
$ \text{<7.E-11} $ 1 all $\beta $ 0
INCANDELA
1986
INDU
$ \text{<1.E-18} $ 4.E$-4<\beta <1.E-3$ 0 18
PRICE
1986
MICA
$ \text{<5.E-12} $ 1 0
BERMON
1985
INDU
$ \text{<6.E-12} $ 1 0
CAPLIN
1985
INDU
$ \text{<6.E-10} $ 1 0
EBISU
1985
INDU
$ \text{<3.E-15} $ Caty 5.E$-5{}\leq{}\beta {}\leq{}1.E-3$ 0 15
KAJITA
1985
KAMI
$ \text{<2.E-21} $ Caty $\beta <1.E-3$ 0 15, 20
KAJITA
1985
KAMI
$ \text{<3.E-15} $ Caty 1.E$-3<\beta <1.E-1$ 0 15
PARK
1985B
CNTR
$ \text{<5.E-12} $ 1 1.E$-4<\beta <$1 0
BATTISTONI
1984
NUSX
$ \text{<7.E-12} $ 1 0
INCANDELA
1984
INDU
$ \text{<7.E-13} $ 1 3.E$-4<\beta $ 0 17
KAJINO
1984
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-12} $ 1 3.E$-4<\beta <1.E-1$ 0
KAJINO
1984B
CNTR
$ \text{<6.E-13} $ 1 5.E$-4<\beta <$1 0
KAWAGOE
1984
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-14} $ 1.E$-3<\beta $ 0 15
KRISHNASWAMY
1984
CNTR
$ \text{<4.E-13} $ 1 6.E$-4<\beta <2.E-3$ 0
LISS
1984
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-16} $ 3.E$-4<\beta <1.E-3$ 0 18
PRICE
1984
MICA
$ \text{<1.E-13} $ 1 1.E$-4<\beta $ 0
PRICE
1984B
PLAS
$ \text{<4.E-13} $ 1 6.E$-4<\beta <2.E-3$ 0
TARLE
1984
CNTR
$ $ 7 21
ANDERSON
1983
EMUL
$ \text{<4.E-13} $ 1 1.E$-2<\beta <1.E-3$ 0
BARTELT
1983B
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-12} $ 1 7.E$-3<\beta <$1 0
BARWICK
1983
PLAS
$ \text{<3.E-13} $ 1 1.E$-3<\beta <4.E-1$ 0
BONARELLI
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<3.E-12} $ Caty 5.E$-4<\beta <5.E-2$ 0 15
BOSETTI
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<4.E-11} $ 1 0
CABRERA
1983
INDU
$ \text{<5.E-15} $ 1 1.E$-2<\beta <$1 0
DOKE
1983
PLAS
$ \text{<8.E-15} $ Caty 1.E$-4<\beta <1.E-1$ 0 15
ERREDE
1983
IMB
$ \text{<5.E-12} $ 1 1.E$-4<\beta <3.E-2$ 0
GROOM
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-12} $ 6.E$-4<\beta <$1 0
MASHIMO
1983
CNTR
$ \text{<1.E-13} $ 1 $\beta =3.E-3$ 0
ALEXEYEV
1982
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-12} $ 1 7.E$-3<\beta <6.E-1$ 0
BONARELLI
1982
CNTR
$ \text{6.E-10} $ 1 all $\beta $ 1 22
CABRERA
1982
INDU
$ \text{<2.E-11} $ 1.E$-2<\beta <1.E-1$ 0
MASHIMO
1982
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-15} $ concentrator 0
BARTLETT
1981
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-13} $ >1 1.E$-3<\beta $ 0
KINOSHITA
1981B
PLAS
$ \text{<5.E-11} $ $<$E17 3.E$-4<\beta <1.E-3$ 0
ULLMAN
1981
CNTR
$ \text{<2.E-11} $ concentrator 0
BARTLETT
1978
PLAS
$ \text{1.E-1} $ >200 2 1 23
PRICE
1975
PLAS
$ \text{<2.E-13} $ >2 0
FLEISCHER
1971
PLAS
$ \text{<1.E-19} $ >2 obsidian, mica 0
FLEISCHER
1969C
PLAS
$ \text{<5.E-15} $ <15 <3 concentrator 0
CARITHERS
1966
ELEC
$ \text{<2.E-11} $ $<1-$3 concentrator 0
MALKUS
1951
EMUL
1  ALBERT 2017 limits were estimated using a Cherenkov light in an array of optical modules under the Mediterranean Sea. The limits are for MM masses between $10^{10}$ and $10^{14}$ GeV. The limits are speed-dependent.
2  AAB 2016 search was made with a set of telescopes sampling the longitudinal profile of fluorescence light emitted by extensive air showers. Limits are speed dependent.
3  AARTSEN 2016B was based on a Cherenkov signature in an array of optical modules which were sunk in the Antarctic ice cap. Limits are speed-dependent.
4  Beyond the monopole speed, the limits of AARTSEN 2014 depend on the catalysis cross section ($\sigma $) which corresponds to the monopole radiating $\hat{{\mathit l}}$ times the light per track length compared to the Cherenkov light from a single electrically charged, relativistic particle. The values quoted here correspond to $\sigma $ = 1 barn or $\hat{{\mathit l}}$ =30.
5  ABBASI 2013 and ABBASI 2010A were based on a Cherenkov signature in an array of optical modules which were sunk in the Antarctic ice cap. Limits are speed-dependent.
6  ADRIAN-MARTINEZ 2012A measurements were based on a Cherenkov signature in an underwater telescope in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Limits are speed-dependent.
7  The limits from UENO 2012 depend on the monopole speed and are also sensitive to assumed values of monopole mass and the catalysis cross section.
8  HOGAN 2008 and DETRIXHE 2011 limits on relativistic monopoles are based on nonobservation of radio Cherenkov signals at the South Pole. Limits are speed-dependent.
9  BALESTRA 2008 exposed of nuclear track detector modules totaling 400 m${}^{2}$ for 4 years at the Chacaltaya Laboratory (5230 m) in search for intermediate-mass monopoles with $\beta >$ 0.05. The analysis is mainly based on three CR39 modules. For M $>5 \times 10^{13}$ GeV there can be upward-going monopoles as well, hence the flux limit is half that obtained for less massive monopoles. Previous experiments (e.g. MACRO and OHYA (ORITO 1991 )) had set limits only for M $>$ $1 \times 10^{9}$ GeV.
10  AMBROSIO 2002B direct search final result for $\mathit m{}\geq{}10^{17}~$GeV, based upon 4.2 to 9.5 years of running, depending upon the subsystem. Limit with CR39 track-etch detector extends the limit from $\beta =4 \times 10^{-5}$ ($3.1 \times 10^{-16}~$cm${}^{-2}~$sr${}^{-1}~$s${}^{-1}$) to $\beta $= $1 \times 10^{-4}$ ($2.1 \times 10^{-16}~$cm${}^{-2}~$sr${}^{-1}~$s${}^{-1}$). Limit curve in paper is piecewise continuous due to different detection techniques for different $\beta $ ranges.
11  AMBROSIO 2002C limit for catalysis of nucleon decay with catalysis cross section of $\approx{}~1~$mb. The flux limit increases by $\sim{}$3 at the higher ${{\mathit \beta}}$ limit, and increases to $1 \times 10^{-14}~$cm${}^{-2}~$sr${}^{-1}~$s${}^{-1}$ if the catalysis cross section is 0.01$~$mb. Based upon 71193$~$hr of data with the streamer detector, with an acceptance of 4250$~$m${}^{2}~$sr.
12  AMBROSIO 2002D result for ``more than two years of data.'' Ionization search using several subsystems. Limit curve as a function of $\beta $ not given. Included in AMBROSIO 2002B.
13  AMBROSIO 1997 global MACRO 90$\%$CL is $0.78 \times 10^{-15}$ at $\beta =1.1 \times 10^{-4}$, goes through a minimum at $0.61 \times 10^{-15}$ near $\beta =(1.1 - 2.7){\times }10^{-3}$, then rises to $0.84 \times 10^{-15}$ at $\beta =0.1$. The global limit in this region is below the Parker bound at $10^{-15}$. Less stringent limits are established for $4 \times 10^{-5}<\beta <1 \times 10^{-4}$. Limits set by various triggers and different subdetectors are given in the paper. All limits assume a catalysis cross section smaller than a few $~$mb.
14  AHLEN 1994 limit for dyons extends down to $\beta =0.9E-4$ and a limit of $1.3E-14$ extends to $\beta $ = $0.8E-4$. Also see comment by PRICE 1994 and reply of BARISH 1994 . One loophole in the AHLEN 1994 result is that in the case of monopoles catalyzing nucleon decay, relativistic particles could veto the events. See AMBROSIO 1997 for additional results.
15  Catalysis of nucleon decay; sensitive to assumed catalysis cross section.
16  ORITO 1991 limits are functions of velocity. Lowest limits are given here.
17  Used DKMPR mechanism and Penning effect.
18  Assumes monopole attaches fermion nucleus.
19  Limit from combining data of CAPLIN 1986 , BERMON 1985 , INCANDELA 1984 , and CABRERA 1983 . For a discussion of controversy about CAPLIN 1986 observed event, see GUY 1987 . Also see SCHOUTEN 1987 .
20  Based on lack of high- energy solar neutrinos from catalysis in the sun.
21  Anomalous long-range $\alpha $ (${}^{4}\mathrm {He}$) tracks.
22  CABRERA 1982 candidate event has single Dirac charge within $\pm5\%$.
23  ALVAREZ 1975 , FLEISCHER 1975 , and FRIEDLANDER 1975 explain as fragmenting nucleus. EBERHARD 1975 and ROSS 1976 discuss conflict with other experiments. HAGSTROM 1977 reinterprets as antinucleus. PRICE 1978 reassesses.
  References:
ALBERT 2017
JHEP 1707 054 Search for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with Five Years of the ANTARES Detector Data
AAB 2016
PR D94 082002 Search for Ultrarelativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory
AARTSEN 2016B
EPJ C76 133 Searches for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles in IceCube
AARTSEN 2014
EPJ C74 2938 Search for non-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube
ABBASI 2013
PR D87 022001 Search for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube
ADRIAN-MARTINEZ 2012A
ASP 35 634 Search for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope
UENO 2012
ASP 36 131 Search for GUT Monopoles at Super-Kamiokande
DETRIXHE 2011
PR D83 023513 Ultra-Relativistic Magnetic Monopole Search with the ANITA-II Balloon-borne Radio Interferometer
ABBASI 2010A
EPJ C69 361 Search for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the AMANDA-II Neutrino Telescope
BALESTRA 2008
EPJ C55 57 Magnetic Monopole Search at High Altitude with the SLIM Experiment
HOGAN 2008
PR D78 075031 Relativistic Magnetic Monopole Flux Constraints from RICE
AMBROSIO 2002C
EPJ C26 163 Search for Nucleon Decays Induced by GUT Magnetic Monopoles with the MACRO Experiment
AMBROSIO 2002D
ASP 18 27 A Combined Analysis Technique for the Search for Fast Magnetic Monopoles with the MACRO Detector
AMBROSIO 2002B
EPJ C25 511 Final Results of Magnetic Monopole Searches with the MACRO Experiment
AMBROSIO 1997
PL B406 249 Magnetic Monopole Search with the MACRO Detector at Gran Sasso
AHLEN 1994
PRL 72 608 Search for Slowly Moving Magnetic Monopoles with the MACRO Detector
BECKER-SZENDY 1994
PR D49 2169 New Magnetic Monopole Flux Limits from IBM Proton Decay Detector
THRON 1992
PR D46 4846 A Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the SOUDAN-2 Detector
GARDNER 1991
PR D44 622 Search for Cosmic Ray Magnetic Monopoles Using a Three-Loop Superconductive Detector
HUBER 1991
PR D44 636 Search for a Flux of Cosmic Ray Magnetic Monopoles with an Eight-Channel Superconductive Detector
ORITO 1991
PRL 66 1951 Search for Supermassive Relics with a 2000-m${}^{2}$ Array of Plastic Track Detectors
BERMON 1990
PRL 64 839 New Limit Set on Cosmic-Ray Monopole Flux by a Large-Area Superconducting Magnetic-Induction Detector
BEZRUKOV 1990
SJNP 52 54 Search for Superheavy Magnetic Monopoles in Deep Underwater Experiments at Lake Baikal
BUCKLAND 1990
PR D41 2726 Results of a Magnetic-Monopole Search Utilizing a Large-Area Proportional-Tube Array
GHOSH 1990
EPL 12 25 Supermassive Magnetic Monopoles Flux from the Oldest Mica Samples
HUBER 1990
PRL 64 835 Limit on the Flux of Cosmic-Ray Magnetic Monopoles from Operation of an Eight-Loop Superconducting Detector
BARISH 1987
PR D36 2641 Search for Grand Unification Monopoles and Other Ionizing Heavy Particles Using a Scintillation at the Earth's Surface
BARTELT 1987
PR D36 1990 Monopole Flux and Proton Decay Limits from the SOUDAN-1 Detector
EBISU 1987
PR D36 3359 Search for Magnetic Monopoles Trapped in Old Iron Ores Using a Superconducting Detector
MASEK 1987
PR D35 2758 Results from a Magnetic Monopole Search Utilizing ${}^{}\mathrm {He}$ Proportional Tubes
NAKAMURA 1987
PL B183 395 Search for Supermassive Relics
SHEPKO 1987
PR D35 2917 Search for Superheavy Grand Unified Magnetic Monopoles in Cosmic Rays
TSUKAMOTO 1987
EPL 3 39 Limits on the Flux of Supermassive Relics
CAPLIN 1986
NAT 321 402 Observation of an Unexplained Event from a Magnetic Monopole Detector
CROMAR 1986
PRL 56 2561 Flux Limit of Cosmic Ray Magnetic Monopoles from a Multiply Discriminating Superconducting Detector
HARA 1986
PRL 56 553 Slow Monopole Search with Large Area Helium Gas Proportional Counter Array
INCANDELA 1986
PR D34 2637 First Result from a 1.1 m Diameter Superconducting Monopole Detector
PRICE 1986
PRL 56 1226 Search for Supermassive Magnetic Monopoles using Mica Crystals
BERMON 1985
PRL 55 1850 Flux Limit of Cosmic Ray Magnetic Monopoles from a Fully Coincident Superconducting Induction Detector
CAPLIN 1985
NAT 317 234 New Upper Bound on the Flux of Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles
EBISU 1985
JP G11 883 New Limit on the Magnetic Monopole Density in Old Iron Ore
KAJITA 1985
JPSJ 54 4065 Search for Nucleon Decays Catalyzed by Magnetic Monopoles
PARK 1985B
NP B252 261 Experimental Limits on Monopole Catalysis, ${{\mathit N}}{{\overline{\mathit N}}}$ Oscillations, and Nucleon Lifetime
BATTISTONI 1984
PL 133B 454 Nucleon Stability, Magnetic Monopoles and Atmospheric Neutrinos in the Mont-Blanc Experiment
INCANDELA 1984
PRL 53 2067 Flux Limit on Cosmic Ray Magnetic Monopoles from a Large Area Induction Detector
KAJINO 1984
PRL 52 1373 First Results from a Search for Magnetic Monopoles by a Detector Utilizing the Drell Mechanism and the Penning Effect
KAJINO 1984B
JP G10 447 New Limit on the Flux of Slowly Moving Magnetic Monopoles
KAWAGOE 1984
LNC 41 315 An Underground Search for Anomalous Slow Penetrating Particles
KRISHNASWAMY 1984
PL 142B 99 Limits on the Flux of Monopoles from the Kolar Gold Mine Experiments
LISS 1984
PR D30 884 Unique Search for Grand Unification Magnetic Monopoles
PRICE 1984B
PL 140B 112 Limit on Flux of Supermassive Monopoles and Charged Relic Particles using Plastic Track Detectors
PRICE 1984
PRL 52 1265 Search for Grand Unified Theory Magnetic Monopoles at a Flux Level below the Parker Limit
TARLE 1984
PRL 52 90 First Results from a Sea Level Search for Supermassive Magnetic Monopoles
ANDERSON 1983
PR D28 2308 Possible Evidence for Magnetic Monopole Interactions: Anomalous Long Range Alpha Particle Tracks Deep Underground
BARTELT 1983B
PRL 50 655 A New Limit on Magnetic Monopole Flux
BARWICK 1983
PR D28 2338 Search for Penetrating, Highly Charged Particles at Mountain Altitude
BONARELLI 1983
PL 126B 137 Search for Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles
BOSETTI 1983
PL 133B 265 Search for Magnetic Monopoles Catalyzing Baryon Decay
CABRERA 1983
PRL 51 1933 Upper Limit on Flux of Cosmic Ray Monopoles Obtained with a Three Loop Superconductive Detector
DOKE 1983
PL 129B 370 Search for Massive Magnetic Monopoles by Plastic Track Detectors
ERREDE 1983
PRL 51 245 Experimental Limits on Magnetic Monopole Catalysis of Nucleon Decay
GROOM 1983
PRL 50 573 Search for Slowly Moving Massive Magnetic Monopoles
MASHIMO 1983
PL 128B 327 An Underground Search for Anomalous Penetrating Particles such as Massive Magnetic Monopoles
ALEXEYEV 1982
LNC 35 413 Search for Superheavy Monopoles at the Baksan Underground Telescope
BONARELLI 1982
PL 112B 100 An Experimental Search for Cosmic Monopoles
CABRERA 1982
PRL 48 1378 First Results from a Superconductive Detector for Moving Magnetic Monopoles
MASHIMO 1982
JPSJ 51 3067 Search for Slow Monopoles and Quarks
BARTLETT 1981
PR D24 612 Search for Cosmic Ray Related Magnetic Monopoles at Ground Level
KINOSHITA 1981B
PR D24 1707 Study of Highly Ionizing Particles at Mountain Altitude
ULLMAN 1981
PRL 47 289 Limits on the Flux of Slowly Moving Very Massive Particles Carrying Electric or Magnetic Charge
BARTLETT 1978
PR D18 2253 Search for Tachyon Monopoles in Cosmic Rays
PRICE 1975
PRL 35 487 Evidence for Detection of a Moving Magnetic Monopole
FLEISCHER 1971
PR D4 24 Sea Level Search for Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles
FLEISCHER 1969C
PR 184 1398 Search for Tracks of Massive, Multiply Charged Magnetic Poles
CARITHERS 1966
PR 149 1070 Search for Heavy Magnetic Monopoles
MALKUS 1951
PR 83 899 The Interaction of the Dirac Magnetic Monopole with Matter