# Monopole Flux $-$ Astrophysics INSPIRE search

FLUX (cm${}^{-2}$sr${}^{-1}$s${}^{-1}$) MASS ${\mathrm {(GeV)}}$ CHG ${\mathrm {(\mathit g)}}$ COMMENTS ${\mathrm {(\beta = \mathit v/\mathit c)}}$ DOCUMENT ID TECN
$\text{<1.3E-20}$ faint white dwarf 1
 1999
ASTR
$\text{<1.E-16}$ E17 1 galactic field 2
 1993
COSM
$\text{<1.E-23}$ Jovian planets 1
 1985
ASTR
$\text{<1.E-16}$ E15 solar trapping
 1985 B
ASTR
$\text{<1.E-18}$ 1 1
 1984
COSM
$\text{<3.E-23}$ neutron stars
 1984
ASTR
$\text{<7.E-22}$ pulsars 1
 1983 B
ASTR
$\text{<1.E-18}$ $<$E18 1 intergalactic field 1
 1983
COSM
$\text{<1.E-23}$ neutron stars 1
 1982
COSM
$\text{<5.E-22}$ neutron stars 1
 1982
COSM
$\text{<5.E-15}$ $>$E21 galactic halo
 1982
COSM
$\text{<1.E-12}$ E19 1 $\beta =3.E-3$ 3
 1982
COSM
$\text{<1.E-16}$ 1 galactic field
 1970
COSM
1  Catalysis of nucleon decay.
2  ADAMS 1993 limit based on survival and growth of a small galactic seed field'' is $10^{-16}$ ($\mathit m/10^{17}$ GeV) cm${}^{-2}~$s${}^{-1}~$sr${}^{-1}$. Above $10^{17}$ GeV, limit $10^{-16}$ ($10^{17}$ GeV/$\mathit m$) cm${}^{-2}~$s${}^{-1}~$sr${}^{-1}$ (from requirement that monopole density does not overclose the universe) is more stringent.
3  Re-evaluates PARKER 1970 limit for GUT monopoles.
References:
 FREESE 1999
PR D59 063007 A Bound on the Flux of Magnetic Monopoles from Catalysis of Nucleon Decay in white Dwarfs
PRL 70 2511 Extension of the Parker Bound on the Flux of Magnetic Monopoles
 ARAFUNE 1985
PR D32 2586 Monopole Abundance in the Solar System and the Intrinsic Heat in the Jovian Planets
 BRACCI 1985B
NP B258 726 Monopole Trapping Inside Stars and Phenomenological Consequences
 HARVEY 1984
NP B236 255 Monopoles in Neutron Stars
 KOLB 1984
APJ 286 702 Limits from the Soft X-ray Background on the Temperature of old Neutron Stars and on the Flux of Superheavy Magnetic Monopoles
 FREESE 1983B
PRL 51 1625 Monopole Catalysis of Nucleon Decay in Old Pulsars
 REPHAELI 1983
PL 121B 115 The Magnetic Monopole Flux and the Survival of Intracluster Magnetic Fields
 DIMOPOULOS 1982
PL 119B 320 Catalyzed Nucleon Decay in Neutron Stars
 KOLB 1982
PRL 49 1373 Monopole Catalysis of Nucleon Decay in Neutron Stars
 SALPETER 1982
PRL 49 1114 Constraints on Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles Imposed by the Galactic Magnetic Field
 TURNER 1982
PR D26 1296 Magnetic Monopoles and the Survival of Galactic Magnetic Fields
 PARKER 1970
APJ 160 383 The Origin of Magnetic Fields