Invisible ${{\boldsymbol A}^{0}}$ (Axion) Limits from Nucleon Coupling INSPIRE search

Limits are for the axion mass in eV.

VALUE (eV) CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<0.03$ 1
LEINSON
2019
ASTR Neutron star cooling
$<9.6 \times 10^{-3}$ 95 2
LLOYD
2019
ASTR ${{\mathit \gamma}}$-rays from NS
3
SMORRA
2019
${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\mathit g$-factor
4
WU
2019
NMR Axion dark matter
$<65$ 95 5
AKHMATOV
2018
CNTR Solar axion
$<6.6$ 90 6
ARMENGAUD
2018
EDE3 Solar axion
$<0.085$ 90 7
BEZNOGOV
2018
ASTR Neutron star cooling
$<12.7$ 95 8
GAVRILYUK
2018
CNTR Solar axion
$<0.01$ 9
HAMAGUCHI
2018
ASTR Neutron star cooling
10
ABEL
2017
Neutron EDM
$<93$ 90 11
ABGRALL
2017
HPGE Solar axion
$<4$ 90 12
FU
2017A
PNDX Solar axion
13
KLIMCHITSKAYA
2017A
Casimir effect
$<177$ 90 14
LIU
2017A
CDEX Solar axion
$<0.079$ 95 15
BERENJI
2016
ASTR ${{\mathit \gamma}}$-rays from NS
$< 100$ 95 16
GAVRILYUK
2015
CNTR Solar axion
17
KLIMCHITSKAYA
2015
Casimir-less
18
BEZERRA
2014
Casimir effect
19
BEZERRA
2014A
Casimir effect
20
BEZERRA
2014B
Casimir effect
21
BEZERRA
2014C
Casimir effect
22
BLUM
2014
COSM ${}^{4}\mathrm {He}$ abundance
23
LEINSON
2014
ASTR Neutron star cooling
$<250$ 95 24
ALESSANDRIA
2013
CNTR Solar axion
$<155$ 90 25
ARMENGAUD
2013
EDEL Solar axion
$<8.6 \times 10^{3}$ 90 26
BELLI
2012
CNTR Solar axion
$<1.4 \times 10^{4}$ 90 27
BELLINI
2012B
BORX Solar axion
$<145$ 95 28
DERBIN
2011
CNTR Solar axion
29
BELLINI
2008
CNTR Solar axion
30
ADELBERGER
2007
Test of Newton's law
1  LEINSON 2019 is analogous to BEZNOGOV 2018 , but estimating the axion luminosity based on the Tolman's analytic solution to the Einstein equations of spherical fluids in hydrostatic equilibrium. The dimensionless axion-neutron coupling is constrained as $\mathit g_{Ann}$ $<$ $1.0 \times 10^{-10}$.
2  LLOYD 2019 is analogous to BERENJI 2016 . They highlight that the limit obtained with this technique strongly depends on the assumed NS core temperature.
3  SMORRA 2019 look for spin-precession effects from ultra-light axion dark matter in the ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ spin-flip resonance data. Assuming ${{\mathit \rho}_{{A}}}$ = 0.4 GeV/cm${}^{3}$, they constrain the dimensionless axion-antiproton coupling as $\mathit g_{ {{\mathit A}} {{\overline{\mathit p}}} {{\overline{\mathit p}}} }$ $<$ $2 - 9$ at 95$\%$ CL for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ = $2 \times 10^{-23} - 4 \times 10^{-17}$ eV. See the right panel of their Fig. 3.
4  WU 2019 look for axion-induced time-oscillating features of the NMR spectrum of acetonitrile-2-${}^{13}\mathrm {C}$. Assuming C$_{p}$ = C$_{n}$ and ${{\mathit \rho}_{{A}}}$ = 0.4 GeV/cm${}^{3}$, they constrain the dimensionless axion-nucleon coupling as ${{\mathit g}_{{ANN}}}$ $<$ $6 \times 10^{-5}$ for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ = $10^{-21} - 1.3 \times 10^{-17}$ eV. Note that the limits for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $<$ $10^{-21}$ eV in their Fig. 3(a) should be weaker than those for heavier masses. See ADELBERGER 2019 and WU 2019C on this issue.
5  AKHMATOV 2018 is an update of GAVRILYUK 2015 .
6  ARMENGAUD 2018 is analogous to ALESSANDRIA 2013 . The quoted limit assumes the DFSZ axion model. See their Fig. 4 for the limit on product of axion couplings to electrons and nucleons.
7  BEZNOGOV 2018 constrain the axion-neutron coupling by assuming that thermal evolution of the hot neutron star HESS J1731-347 is dominated by the lowest possible neutrino emission. The quoted limit assumes the KSVZ axion with the effective Peccei-Quinn charge of the neutron C$_{n}$ = $-0.02$. The dimensionless axion-neutron couling is constrained as $\mathit g_{Ann}$ $<$ $2.8 \times 10^{-10}$.
8  GAVRILYUK 2018 look for the resonant excitation of ${}^{83}\mathrm {Kr}$ (9.4 keV) by solar axions produced via the Primakoff effect. The mass bound assumes ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit u}}}/{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit d}}}$ = 0.56 and $\mathit S$ = 0.5.
9  HAMAGUCHI 2018 studied the axion emission from the neutron star in Cassiopeia A based on the minimal cooling scenario which explains the observed rapid cooling rate. The quoted limit corresponds to $\mathit f_{A}$ $>$ $5 \times 10^{8}$ GeV obtained for the KSVZ axion with C$_{p}$ = $-0.47$ and C$_{n}$ = $-0.02$.
10  ABEL 2017 look for a time-oscillating neutron EDM and an axion-wind spin-precession effect respectively induced by axion dark matter couplings to gluons and nucleons. See their Fig. 4 for limits in the range of ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ = $10^{-24} - 10^{-17}$ eV.
11  ABGRALL 2017 limit assumes the hadronic axion model used in ALESSANDRIA 2013 . See their Fig. 4 for the limit on product of axion couplings to electrons and nucleons.
12  FU 2017A look for the 14.4 keV ${}^{57}\mathrm {Fe}$ solar axions. The limit assumes the DFSZ axion model. See their Fig. 3 for mass-dependent limits on the axion-electron coupling. Notice that in this figure the DFSZ and KSVZ lines should be interchanged.
13  KLIMCHITSKAYA 2017A use the differential measurement of the Casimir force between a ${}^{}\mathrm {Ni}$-coated sphere and ${}^{}\mathrm {Au}$ and ${}^{}\mathrm {Ni}$ sectors of the structured disc to constrain the axion coupling to nucleons for $2.61$ meV $<$ ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $<$ 0.9 eV. See their Figs. 1 and 2 for mass dependent limits.
14  LIU 2017 is analogous to ALESSANDRIA 2013 . The limit assumes the hadronic axion model. See their Fig. 6(b) for the limit on product of axion couplings to electrons and nucleons.
15  BERENJI 2016 used the Fermi LAT observations of neutron stars to look for photons from axion decay. They assume the effective Peccei-Quinn charge of the neutron C$_{n}$ = $0.1$ and a neutron-star core temperature of 20 MeV.
16  GAVRILYUK 2015 look for solar axions emitted by the M1 transition of ${}^{83}\mathrm {Kr}$ (9.4 keV). The mass bound assumes ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit u}}}/{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit d}}}$ = 0.56 and $\mathit S$ = 0.5.
17  KLIMCHITSKAYA 2015 use the measurement of differential forces between a test mass and rotating source masses of ${}^{}\mathrm {Au}$ and ${}^{}\mathrm {Si}$ to constrain the force due to two-axion exchange for $1.7 \times 10^{-3}$ $<$ ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $<$ 0.9 eV. See their Figs. 1 and 2 for mass dependent limits.
18  BEZERRA 2014 use the measurement of the thermal Casimir-Polder force between a Bose-Einstein condensate of ${}^{87}\mathrm {Rb}$ atoms and a ${}^{}\mathrm {SiO}_{2}$ plate to constrain the force mediated by exchange of two pseudoscalars for 0.1 meV $<$ ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}<$ 0.3 eV. See their Fig. 2 for the mass-dependent limit on pseudoscalar coupling to nucleons.
19  BEZERRA 2014A is analogous to BEZERRA 2014 . They use the measurement of the Casimir pressure between two ${}^{}\mathrm {Au}$-coated plates to constrain pseudoscalar coupling to nucleons for $1 \times 10^{-3}$ eV $<$ ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}<$ 15 eV. See their Figs. 1 and 2 for the mass-dependent limit.
20  BEZERRA 2014B is analogous to BEZERRA 2014 . BEZERRA 2014B use the measurement of the normal and lateral Casimir forces between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces of a sphere and a plate to constrain pseudoscalar coupling to nucleons for 1 eV $<$ ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $<$ 20 eV. See their Figs. $1 - 3$ for mass-dependent limits.
21  BEZERRA 2014C is analogous to BEZERRA 2014 . They use the measurement of the gradient of the Casimir force between ${}^{}\mathrm {Au}$- and ${}^{}\mathrm {Ni}$-coated surfaces of a sphere and a plate to constrain pseudoscalar coupling to nucleons for $3 \times 10^{-5}$ eV $<$ ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}_{{0}}}}$ $<$ 1 eV. See their Figs. 1, 3, and 4 for the mass-dependent limits.
22  BLUM 2014 studied effects of an oscillating strong $\mathit CP$ phase induced by axion dark matter on the primordial ${}^{4}\mathrm {He}$ abundance. See their Fig. 1 for mass-dependent limits.
23  LEINSON 2014 attributes the excessive cooling rate of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A to axion emission from the superfluid core, and found C${}^{2}_{n}{{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $\simeq{}$ $5.7 \times 10^{-6}$ eV${}^{2}$, where C$_{n}$ is the effective Peccei-Quinn charge of the neutron.
24  ALESSANDRIA 2013 used the CUORE experiment to look for 14.4 keV solar axions produced from the M1 transition of thermally excited ${}^{57}\mathrm {Fe}$ nuclei in the solar core, using the axio-electric effect. The limit assumes the hadronic axion model. See their Fig. 4 for the limit on product of axion couplings to electrons and nucleons.
25  ARMENGAUD 2013 is analogous to ALESSANDRIA 2013 . The limit assumes the hadronic axion model. See their Fig. 8 for the limit on product of axion couplings to electrons and nucleons.
26  BELLI 2012 looked for solar axions emitted by the M1 transition of ${}^{7}\mathrm {Li}{}^{*}$ (478 keV) after the electron capture of ${}^{7}\mathrm {Be}$, using the resonant excitation ${}^{7}\mathrm {Li}$ in the ${}^{}\mathrm {LiF}$ crystal. The mass bound assumes ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit u}}}/{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit d}}}$ = 0.55, ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit u}}}/{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit s}}}$ = 0.029, and the flavor-singlet axial vector matrix element $\mathit S$ = 0.4.
27  BELLINI 2012B looked for 5.5 MeV solar axions produced in the ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit d}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}{{\mathit A}^{0}}$.The limit assumes the hadronic axion model. See their Figs. 6 and 7 for mass-dependent limits on productsof axion couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons.
28  DERBIN 2011 looked for solar axions emitted by the M1 transition of thermally excited ${}^{57}\mathrm {Fe}$ nuclei in the Sun, using their possible resonant capture on ${}^{57}\mathrm {Fe}$ in the laboratory. The mass bound assumes ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit u}}}/{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit d}}}$ = 0.56 and the flavor-singlet axial vector matrix element ${{\mathit S}}$ = 3${{\mathit F}}−{{\mathit D}}$ $\simeq{}$ 0.5.
29  BELLINI 2008 consider solar axions emitted in the M1 transition of ${}^{7}\mathrm {Li}{}^{*}$ (478 keV) and look for a peak at 478 keV in the energy spectra of the Counting Test Facility (CTF), a Borexino prototype. For ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $<$ 450 keV they find mass-dependent limits on products of axion couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons.
30  ADELBERGER 2007 use precision tests of Newton's law to constrain a force contribution from the exchange of two pseudoscalars. See their Fig. 5 for limits on the pseudoscalar coupling to nucleons, relevant for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ below about 1 meV.
  References:
LEINSON 2019
JCAP 1911 031
LLOYD 2019
PR D100 063005 Constraining the axion mass through gamma-ray observations of pulsars
SMORRA 2019
NAT 575 310 Direct limits on the interaction of antiprotons with axion-like dark matter
WU 2019
PRL 122 191302 Search for Axionlike Dark Matter with a Liquid-State Nuclear Spin Comagnetometer
AKHMATOV 2018
PPN 49 599 Results of Searching for Solar Hadronic Axions Emitted in the M1 Transition in$^{83}$Kr Nuclei
ARMENGAUD 2018
PR D98 082004 Searches for electron interactions induced by new physics in the EDELWEISS-III Germanium bolometers
BEZNOGOV 2018
PR C98 035802 Constraints on Axion-like Particles and Nucleon Pairing in Dense Matter from the Hot Neutron Star in HESS J1731-347
GAVRILYUK 2018
JETPL 107 589 New Constraints on the Axion?Photon Coupling Constant for Solar Axions
HAMAGUCHI 2018
PR D98 103015 Limit on the Axion Decay Constant from the Cooling Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A
ABEL 2017
PR X7 041034 Search for Axionlike Dark Matter through Nuclear Spin Precession in Electric and Magnetic Fields
ABGRALL 2017
PRL 118 161801 New limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator
FU 2017A
PRL 119 181806 Limits on Axion Couplings from the First 80 Days of Data of the PandaX-II Experiment
KLIMCHITSKAYA 2017A
PR D95 123013 Constraints on Axionlike Particles and non-Newtonian Gravity from Measuring the Difference of Casimir Forces
LIU 2017A
PR D95 052006 Constraints on Axion Couplings from the CDEX-1 Experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory
BERENJI 2016
PR D93 045019 Constraints on Axions and Axionlike Particles from Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Neutron Stars
GAVRILYUK 2015
JETPL 101 664 New Experiment on Search for the Resonance Absorption of Solar Axion Emitted in the M1 Transition of ${}^{83}\mathrm {Kr}$ Nuclei
KLIMCHITSKAYA 2015
EPJ C75 164 Improved Constraints on the Coupling Constants of Axion-like Particles to Nucleons from Recent Casimir-less Experiment
BEZERRA 2014
PR D89 035010 Constraints on the Parameters of an Axion from Measurements of the Thermal Casimir-Polder Force
BEZERRA 2014C
PR D89 075002 Stronger Constraints on an Axion from Measuring the Casimir Interaction by Means of a Dynamic Atomic Force Microscope
BEZERRA 2014B
PR D90 055013 Constraints on Axion-Nucleon Coupling Constants from Measuring the Casimir Force between Corrugated Surfaces
BEZERRA 2014A
EPJ C74 2859 Constraining Axion-Nucleon Coupling Constants from Measurements of Effective Casimir Pressure by Means of Micromachined Oscillator
BLUM 2014
PL B737 30 Constraining Axion Dark Matter with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
LEINSON 2014
JCAP 1408 031 Axion Mass Limit from Observations of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A
ALESSANDRIA 2013
JCAP 1305 007 Search for 14.4 keV Solar Axions from M1 Transition of ${}^{57}\mathrm {Fe}$ with CUORE Crystals
ARMENGAUD 2013
JCAP 1311 067 Axion Searches with the EDELWEISS-II Experiment
BELLI 2012
PL B711 41 Search for ${}^{7}\mathrm {Li}$ Solar Axions using Resonant Absorption in LiF Crystal: Final Results
BELLINI 2012B
PR D85 092003 Search for Solar Axions Produced in the ${{\mathit p}}({{\mathit d}},{}^{3}\mathrm {He}$)A Reaction with Borexino Detector
DERBIN 2011
PAN 74 596 New limit on the Mass of 14.4-keV Solar Axions Emitted in an $\mathit M$1 Transition in ${}^{57}\mathrm {Fe}$ Nuclei
BELLINI 2008
EPJ C54 61 Search for Solar Axions Emitted in the M1-Transition of ${}^{7}\mathrm {Li}^{*}$ with Borexino CTF
ADELBERGER 2007
PRL 98 131104 Particle-Physics Implications of a Recent Test of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law