Axion Limits from $\boldsymbol T$-violating Medium-Range Forces INSPIRE search

The limit is for the coupling $\mathit g$ = $\mathit g_{{\mathrm {p}}}$ $\mathit g_{{\mathrm {s}}}$ in a $\mathit T$-violating potential between nucleons or nucleon and electron of the form $\mathit V$ = ${\mathit g\hbar{}{}^{2}\over 8{{\mathit \pi}}{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}}(\mathbf {\sigma }\cdot{}\mathbf {\hat{{\mathit r}}}$) (${1\over \mathit r{}^{2}}+{1\over \lambda \mathit r}$) $\mathit e{}^{−\mathit r/\lambda }$, where $\mathit g_{{\mathrm {p}}}$ and $\mathit g_{{\mathrm {s}}}$ are dimensionless scalar and pseudoscalar coupling constants and $\lambda $ = $\hbar{}/({\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}}}\mathit c$) is the range of the force.

VALUE DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
1
STADNIK
2018
THEO atomic and molecular EDMs
2
CRESCINI
2017
SQID paramagnetic GSO crystal
3
AFACH
2015
ultracold neutrons
4
STADNIK
2015
THEO nucleon spin contributions for nuclei
5
TERRANO
2015
torsion pendulum
6
BULATOWICZ
2013
NMR polarized ${}^{129}\mathrm {Xe}$ and ${}^{131}\mathrm {Xe}$
7
CHU
2013
polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$
8
TULLNEY
2013
SQID polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$ and ${}^{129}\mathrm {Xe}$
9
RAFFELT
2012
stellar energy loss
10
HOEDL
2011
torsion pendulum
11
PETUKHOV
2010
polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$
12
SEREBROV
2010
ultracold neutrons
13
IGNATOVICH
2009
RVUE ultracold neutrons
14
SEREBROV
2009
RVUE ultracold neutrons
15
BAESSLER
2007
ultracold neutrons
16
HECKEL
2006
torsion pendulum
17
NI
1999
paramagnetic ${}^{}\mathrm {Tb}{}^{}\mathrm {F}_{3}$
18
POSPELOV
1998
THEO neutron EDM
19
YOUDIN
1996
20
RITTER
1993
torsion pendulum
21
VENEMA
1992
nuclear spin-precession frequencies
22
WINELAND
1991
NMR
1  STADNIK 2018 used atomic and molecular EDM experiments to derive limits on the product of the pseudoscalar couplings to electron and the scalar coupling to nucleon and electron. See their Fig. 2 for mass-dependent limits, which improved on the laboratory bounds for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $>$ 0.01 eV.
2  CRESCINI 2017 use the QUAX-${{\mathit g}_{{p}}}{{\mathit g}_{{s}}}$ experiment to look for variation of a paramagnetic GSO crystal magnetization when rotating lead disks are positioned near the crystal, and find $\mathit g$ = ${{\mathit g}_{{p}}^{e}}{{\mathit g}_{{s}}^{N}}$ $<$ $4.3 \times 10^{-30}$ for $\lambda $ = $0.1 - 0.2$ m at 95$\%$ CL. See their Fig. 6 for limits as a function of $\lambda $.
3  AFACH 2015 look for a change of spin precession frequency of ultracold neutrons when a magnetic field with opposite directions is applied, and find ${{\mathit g}}$ $<$ $2.2 \times 10^{-27}$ (m/$\lambda ){}^{2}$ at 95$\%$ CL for 1 $\mu $m $<$ $\lambda $ $<$ 5 mm. See their Fig. 3 for their limits.
4  STADNIK 2015 studied proton and neutron spin contributions for nuclei and derive the limits $\mathit g$ $<$ $10^{-28} - 10^{-23}$ for $\lambda $ $>$ $3 \times 10^{-4}$ m using the data of TULLNEY 2013 . See their Figs. 1 and 2 for $\lambda $-dependent limits.
5  TERRANO 2015 used a torsion pendulum and rotating attractor, and derived a restrictive limit on the product of the pseudoscalar coupling to electron and the scalar coupling to nucleons, ${{\mathit g}}$ $<$ $9 \times 10^{-29} - 5 \times 10^{-26}$ for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ $<$ $1.5 - 400$ $\mu $eV. See their Fig. 5 for mass-dependent limits.
6  BULATOWICZ 2013 looked for NMR frequency shifts in polarized ${}^{129}\mathrm {Xe}$ and ${}^{131}\mathrm {Xe}$ when a zirconia rod is positioned near the NMR cell, and find $\mathit g$ $<$ $1 \times 10^{-19} - 1 \times 10^{-24}$ for $\lambda $ = $0.01 - 1$ cm. See their Fig. 4 for their limits.
7  CHU 2013 look for a shift of the spin precession frequency of polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$ in the presence of an unpolarized mass, in analogy to YOUDIN 1996 . See Fig.$~$3 for limits on ${{\mathit g}}$ in the approximate ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ range $0.02 - 2$ meV.
8  TULLNEY 2013 look for a shift of the precession frequency difference between the colocated ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$ and ${}^{129}\mathrm {Xe}$ in the presence an unpolarized mass, and derive limits g $<$ $3 \times 10^{-29} - 2 \times 10^{-22}$ for $\lambda $ $>$ $3 \times 10^{-4}$ m. See their Fig. 3 for $\lambda $-dependent limits.
9  RAFFELT 2012 show that the pseudoscalar couplings to electron and nucleon and the scalar coupling to nucleon are individually constrained by stellar energy-loss arguments and searches for anomalous monopole-monopole forces, together providing restrictive constraints on $\mathit g$. See their Figs. 2 and 3 for results.
10  HOEDL 2011 use a novel torsion pendulum to study the force by the polarized electrons of an external magnet. In their Fig.$~$3 they show restrictive limits on $\mathit g$ in the approximate ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}^{0}}}$ range $0.03 - 10$ meV.
11  use spin relaxation of polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$ and find $\mathit g$ $<$ $3 \times 10^{-23}$ (cm/$\lambda ){}^{2}$ at 95$\%$ CL for the force range $\lambda $ = $10^{-4} - 1$ cm.
12  SEREBROV 2010 use spin precession of ultracold neutrons close to bulk matter and find $\mathit g~<$ $2 \times 10^{-21}$ (cm/$\lambda ){}^{2}$ at 95$\%$ CL for the force range $\lambda $ = $10^{-4} - 1$ cm.
13  IGNATOVICH 2009 use data on depolarization of ultracold neutrons in material traps. They show $\lambda $-dependent limits in their Fig. 1.
14  SEREBROV 2009 uses data on depolarization of ultracold neutrons stored in material traps and finds ${{\mathit g}}<2.96 \times 10^{-21}$ (cm/${{\mathit \lambda}}){}^{2}$ for the force range ${{\mathit \lambda}}$ = $10^{-3} - 1$ cm and ${{\mathit g}}<3.9 \times 10^{-22}$ (cm/${{\mathit \lambda}}){}^{2}$ for ${{\mathit \lambda}}$ = $10^{-4} - 10^{-3}$ cm, each time at 95$\%$ CL, significantly improving on BAESSLER 2007 .
15  BAESSLER 2007 use the observation of quantum states of ultracold neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field to constrain $\mathit g$ for an interaction range 1 $\mu $m$-$a few mm. See their Fig.$~$3 for results.
16  HECKEL 2006 studied the influence of unpolarized bulk matter, including the laboratory's surroundings or the Sun, on a torsion pendulum containing about $9 \times 10^{22}$ polarized electrons. See their Fig. 4 for limits on $\mathit g$ as a function of interaction range.
17  NI 1999 searched for a $\mathit T$-violating medium-range force acting on paramagnetic ${}^{}\mathrm {Tb}{}^{}\mathrm {F}_{3}$ salt. See their Fig.$~$1 for the result.
18  POSPELOV 1998 studied the possible contribution of $\mathit T$-violating Medium-Range Force to the neutron electric dipole moment, which is possible when axion interactions violate $\mathit CP$. The size of the force among nucleons must be smaller than gravity by a factor of $2 \times 10^{-10}$ (1$~$cm/$\lambda _{\mathit A}$), where $\lambda _{\mathit A}=\hbar{}/{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit A}}}\mathit c$.
19  YOUDIN 1996 compared the precession frequencies of atomic ${}^{199}\mathrm {Hg}$ and ${}^{}\mathrm {Cs}$ when a large mass is positioned near the cells, relative to an applied magnetic field. See Fig.$~$3 for their limits.
20  RITTER 1993 studied the influence of bulk mass with polarized electrons on an unpolarized torsion pendulum, providing limits in the interaction range from 1 to 100 cm.
21  VENEMA 1992 looked for an effect of Earth's gravity on nuclear spin-precession frequencies of ${}^{199}\mathrm {Hg}$ and ${}^{201}\mathrm {Hg}$ atoms.
22  WINELAND 1991 looked for an effect of bulk matter with aligned electron spins on atomic hyperfine resonances in stored ${}^{9}\mathrm {Be}{}^{+}$ ions using nuclear magnetic resonance.
  References:
STADNIK 2018
PRL 120 013202 Improved Limits on Axionlike-Particle-Mediated $\mathit P$, $\mathit T$-Violating Interactions between Electrons and Nucleons from Electric Dipole Moments of Atoms and Molecules
CRESCINI 2017
PL B773 677 Improved Constraints on Monopole-Dipole Interaction Mediated by Pseudo-Scalar Bosons
AFACH 2015
PL B745 58 Constraining Interactions Mediated by Axion-Like Particles with Ultracold Neutrons
STADNIK 2015
EPJ C75 110 Nuclear spin-dependent interactions: Searches for WIMP, Axion and Topological Defect Dark Matter, and Tests of Fundamental Symmetries
TERRANO 2015
PRL 115 201801 Short-Range Spin-Dependent Interactions of Electrons: a Probe for Exotic Pseudo-Goldstone Bosons
BULATOWICZ 2013
PRL 111 102001 A Laboratory Search for a Long-Range $\mathit T$-odd, $\mathit P$-odd Interaction from Axion-Like Particles using Dual Species Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with Polarized ${}^{129}\mathrm {Xe}$ and ${}^{131}\mathrm {Xe}$ Gas
CHU 2013
PR D87 011105 Laboratory Search for Spin-Dependent Short-Range Force from Axionlike Particles using Optically Polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$ Gas
TULLNEY 2013
PRL 111 100801 Constraints on Spin-Dependent Short-Range Interaction between Nucleons
RAFFELT 2012
PR D86 015001 Limits on a $\mathit CP$-Violating Scalar Axion-Nucleon Interaction
HOEDL 2011
PRL 106 041801 Improved Constraints on an Axion-Mediated Force
PETUKHOV 2010
PRL 105 170401 Polarized ${}^{3}\mathrm {He}$ as a Probe for Short-Range Spin-Dependent Interactions
SEREBROV 2010
JETPL 91 6 Search for Macroscopic $\mathit CP$ Violating Forces using a Neutron EDM Spectrometer
IGNATOVICH 2009
EPJ C64 19 Limits on a Nucleon-Nucleon Monopole-Dipole Coupling from Spin Relaxation of Polarized Ultra-Cold Neutrons in Traps
SEREBROV 2009
PL B680 423 New Constraints for $\mathit CP$-Violating Forces between Nucleons in the Range 1 Micrometer to 1 Centimeter
BAESSLER 2007
PR D75 075006 Constraint on the Coupling of Axionlike Particles to Matter via an Ultracold Neutron Gravitational Experiment
HECKEL 2006
PRL 97 021603 New $\mathit CP$-Violation and Preferred-Frame Tests with Polarized Electrons
NI 1999
PRL 82 2439 Search for an Axionlike Spin Coupling using a Paramagnetic Salt with a dc SQUID
POSPELOV 1998
PR D58 097703 $\mathit CP$ Odd Interaction of Axion with Matter
YOUDIN 1996
PRL 77 2170 Limits on Spin $−$ Mass Couplings within the Axion Window
RITTER 1993
PRL 70 701 Search for Anomalous Spin-Dependent Forces with a Polarized-Mass Torsion Pendulum
VENEMA 1992
PRL 68 135 Search for a Coupling of the Earth's Gravitational Field to Nuclear Spins in Atomic Mercury
WINELAND 1991
PRL 67 1735 Search for Anomalous Spin Dependent Forces Using Stored Ion Spectroscopy