${{\overline{\boldsymbol \nu}}}$ MASS (electron based) INSPIRE search

Those limits given below are for the square root of $\mathit m{}^{{\mathrm {2(eff)}}}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}}{}\equiv\sum_{i}\vert U_{ei}\vert ^2$ ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{i}}}}$. Limits that come from the kinematics of ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ ${{\mathit \beta}^{-}}{{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}$ decay are the square roots of the limits for $\mathit m{}^{{\mathrm {2(eff)}}}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}}$. Obtained from the measurements reported in the Listings for ``${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}$ Mass Squared,'' below.
VALUE (eV) CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
$\bf{ <2}$ OUR EVALUATION
$\bf{<2.05}$ 95 1
ASEEV
2011
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<2.3$ 95 2
KRAUS
2005
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ $\beta $ decay
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<5.8$ 95 3
PAGLIAROLI
2010
ASTR SN1987A
$<21.7$ 90 4
ARNABOLDI
2003A
BOLO ${}^{187}\mathrm {Re}{{\mathit \beta}}$-decay
$<5.7$ 95 5
LOREDO
2002
ASTR SN1987A
$<2.5$ 95 6
LOBASHEV
1999
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ $\beta $ decay
$<2.8$ 95 7
WEINHEIMER
1999
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<4.35$ 95 8
BELESEV
1995
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<12.4$ 95 9
CHING
1995
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ ${{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<92$ 95 10
HIDDEMANN
1995
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$15$ ${}^{+32}_{-15}$
HIDDEMANN
1995
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<19.6$ 95
KERNAN
1995
ASTR SN 1987A
$<7.0$ 95 11
STOEFFL
1995
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<7.2$ 95 12
WEINHEIMER
1993
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<11.7$ 95 13
HOLZSCHUH
1992B
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<13.1$ 95 14
KAWAKAMI
1991
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<9.3$ 95 15
ROBERTSON
1991
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}{{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
$<14$ 95
AVIGNONE
1990
ASTR SN 1987A
$<16$
SPERGEL
1988
ASTR SN 1987A
$17\text{ to }40 $ 16
BORIS
1987
SPEC ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ ${{\mathit \beta}}$ decay
1  ASEEV 2011 report the analysis of the entire beta endpoint data, taken with the Troitsk integrating electrostatic spectrometer between 1997 and 2002 (some of the earlier runs were rejected), using a windowless gaseous tritium source. The fitted value of ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$, based on the method of Feldman and Cousins, is obtained from the upper limit of the fit for ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$. Previous analysis problems were resolved by careful monitoring of the tritium gas column density. Supersedes LOBASHEV 1999 and BELESEV 1995 .
2  KRAUS 2005 is a continuation of the work reported in WEINHEIMER 1999 . This result represents the final analysis of data taken from 1997 to 2001. Various sources of systematic uncertainties have been identified and quantified. The background has been reduced compared to the initial running period. A spectral anomaly at the endpoint, reported in LOBASHEV 1999 , was not observed.
3  PAGLIAROLI 2010 is critical of the likelihood method used by LOREDO 2002 .
4  ARNABOLDI 2003A $\mathit et\mathit al.$ report kinematical neutrino mass limit using ${{\mathit \beta}}$-decay of ${}^{187}\mathrm {Re}$. Bolometric AgReO$_{4}$ micro-calorimeters are used. Mass bound is substantially weaker than those derived from tritium ${{\mathit \beta}}$-decays but has different systematic uncertainties.
5  LOREDO 2002 updates LOREDO 1989 .
6  LOBASHEV 1999 report a new measurement which continues the work reported in BELESEV 1995 . This limit depends on phenomenological fit parameters used to derive their best fit to ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$, making unambiguous interpretation difficult. See the footnote under ``${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}~$Mass Squared.''
7  WEINHEIMER 1999 presents two analyses which exclude the spectral anomaly and result in an acceptable ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$. We report the most conservative limit, but the other is nearly the same. See the footnote under ``${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}}~$Mass Squared.''
8  BELESEV 1995 (Moscow) use an integral electrostatic spectrometer with adiabatic magnetic collimation and a gaseous tritium sources. A fit to a normal Kurie plot above $18300 - 18350$ eV (to avoid a low-energy anomaly) plus a monochromatic line $7 - 15$ eV below the endpoint yields ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ = $-4.1$ $\pm10.9$ eV${}^{2}$, leading to this Bayesian limit.
9  CHING 1995 quotes results previously given by SUN 1993 ; no experimental details are given. A possible explanation for consistently negative values of ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ is given.
10  HIDDEMANN 1995 (Munich) experiment uses atomic tritium embedded in a metal-dioxide lattice. Bayesian limit calculated from the weighted mean ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ = $221$ $\pm4244$ eV${}^{2}$ from the two runs listed below.
11  STOEFFL 1995 (LLNL) result is the Bayesian limit obtained from the ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ errors given below but with ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ set equal to 0. The anomalous endpoint accumulation leads to a value of ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ which is negative by more than 5 standard deviations.
12  WEINHEIMER 1993 (Mainz) is a measurement of the endpoint of the tritium $\beta $ spectrum using an electrostatic spectrometer with a magnetic guiding field. The source is molecular tritium frozen onto an aluminum substrate.
13  HOLZSCHUH 1992B (Zurich) result is obtained from the measurement ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ = $-24$ $\pm48$ $\pm61$ (1$\sigma $ errors), in eV${}^{2}$, using the PDG prescription for conversion to a limit in ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$.
14  KAWAKAMI 1991 (Tokyo) experiment uses tritium-labeled arachidic acid. This result is the Bayesian limit obtained from the ${{\mathit m}^{2}}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ limit with the errors combined in quadrature. This was also done in ROBERTSON 1991 , although the authors report a different procedure.
15  ROBERTSON 1991 (LANL) experiment uses gaseous molecular tritium. The result is in strong disagreement with the earlier claims by the ITEP group [LUBIMOV 1980 , BORIS 1987 ($+~$BORIS 1988 erratum)] that ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}$ lies between 17 and 40 eV. However, the probability of a positive $\mathit m{}^{2}$ is only 3$\%$ if statistical and systematic error are combined in quadrature.
16  See also comment in BORIS 1987B and erratum in BORIS 1988 .
  References:
ASEEV 2011
PR D84 112003 Upper Limit on the Electron Antineutrino Mass from the Troitsk Experiment
PAGLIAROLI 2010
ASP 33 287 Neutrino Mass Bound in the Standard Scenario for Supernova Electronic Antineutrino Emission
KRAUS 2005
EPJ C40 447 Final Results from Phase II of the Mainz Neutrino Mass Searchin Tritium $\beta $ Decay
ARNABOLDI 2003A
PRL 91 161802 Bolometric Bounds on the Antineutrino Mass
LOREDO 2002
PR D65 063002 Bayesian Analysis of Neutrinos Observed from Supernova SN1987a
LOBASHEV 1999
PL B460 227 Direct Search for Mass of Neutrino and Anomaly in the Tritium $\beta $ Spectrum
WEINHEIMER 1999
PL B460 219 High Precision Measurement of the Tritium $\beta $ Spectrum near its Endpoint and Upper Limit on the Neutrino Mass
BELESEV 1995
PL B350 263 Results of the Troitsk Experiment on the Search for the Electron Antineutrino Rest Mass in Tritium $\beta $ Decay
CHING 1995
IJMP A10 2841 A Possible Explanation of the Negative Values of $\mathit m{}^{2}$ (${{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}$) Obtained from the $\beta $ Spectrum Shape Analyses
HIDDEMANN 1995
JP G21 639 Limits on Neutrino Masses from the Tritium $\beta $ Spectrum
KERNAN 1995
NP B437 243 Update Limits on the Electron Neutrino Mass and Large Angle Oscillations from SN1987a
STOEFFL 1995
PRL 75 3237 Anomalous Structure in the $\beta $ Decay of Gaseous Molecular Tritium
WEINHEIMER 1993
PL B300 210 Improved Limit on the ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ Rest Mass from Tritium $\beta $ Decay
HOLZSCHUH 1992B
PL B287 381 Measurement of the Electron Neutrino Mass from Tritium $\beta $ Decay
KAWAKAMI 1991
PL B256 105 New Upper Bound on the Electron Anti-Neutrino Mass
ROBERTSON 1991
PRL 67 957 Limit on ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ Mass from Observation of the $\beta $ Decay of Molecular Tritium
AVIGNONE 1990
PR D41 682 Quasi Model Independent Analysis of the Kamiokande-II Neutrino Events from SN1987a
SPERGEL 1988
PL B200 366 The Mass of the ${{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}$: Monte Carlo Studies of SN1987a Observations
BORIS 1987
PRL 58 2019 Neutrino Mass from the $\beta $ Spectrum in the Decay of Tritium
SUN 1993
CJNP 15 261 An upper Limit for the Electron Antineutrino Mass
LOREDO 1989
ANYAS 571 601 Neutrino from SN1987a: Implications for Cooling of the Nascent Neutron Star and the Mass of the ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$
BORIS 1987B
JETPL 45 333 The Neutrino Mass from the Tritium $\beta $ Spectrum (ITEP-86)
BORIS 1988
PRL 61 245 (erratum) Erratum to BORIS 1987 . Neutrino Mass from the $\beta $ Spectrum in the Decay of Tritium