# SUM OF THE NEUTRINO MASSES, ${\boldsymbol m}_{\mathrm {tot}}$ INSPIRE search

(Defined in the above note), of effectively stable neutrinos (i.e., those with mean lives greater than or equal to the age of the universe). These papers assumed Dirac neutrinos. When necessary, we have generalized the results reported so they apply to ${\mathit m}_{\mathrm {tot}}$. For other limits, see SZALAY 1976 , VYSOTSKY 1977 , BERNSTEIN 1981 , FREESE 1984 , SCHRAMM 1984 , and COWSIK 1985 .

VALUE (eV) CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<0.151$ 95 1
 2017
COSM
$<0.14$ 95 2
 2017
COSM BOSS and XQ-100
$<0.0926$ 90 3
 2016
COSM
$<0.18$ 95 4
 2016
COSM Normal mass hierarchy
$<0.14$ 95 5
 2015
COSM
$<0.23$ 95 6
 2014
COSM Planck
$0.320$ $\pm0.081$ 7
 2014
COSM
$0.35$ $\pm0.10$ 8
 2014
COSM BOSS
$0.22$ ${}^{+0.09}_{-0.10}$ 9
 2014
COSM
$<0.22$ 95 10
 2014
COSM
$0.32$ $\pm0.11$ 11
 2014
COSM
$<0.26$ 95 12
 2014
COSM
$<0.18$ 95 13
 2014
COSM
$<0.24$ 68 14
 2012
COSM
$<0.29$ 95 15
 2012
COSM
$<0.81$ 95 16
 2011
COSM SDSS
$<0.44$ 95 17
 2010
COSM
$<0.6$ 95 18
 2010
COSM
$<0.28$ 95 19
 2010
COSM
$<1.1$ 20
 2009
COSM
$<1.3$ 95 21
 2009
COSM WMAP
$<1.2$ 22
 2009
COSM
$<0.33$ 23
 2009
COSM
$<0.28$ 24
 2008
COSM
$\text{< 0.17 - 2.3}$ 25
 2007
COSM
$<0.42$ 95 26
 2007
COSM
$\text{< 0.63 - 2.2}$ 27
 2007
COSM
$<0.24$ 95 28
 2006
COSM
$<0.62$ 95 29
 2006
COSM
$<1.2$ 30
 2006
COSM
$<0.17$ 95 28
 2006
COSM
$<2.0$ 95 31
 2005
COSM
$<0.75$ 32
 2004
COSM
$<1.0$ 33
 2004
COSM
$<0.7$ 34
 2003
COSM WMAP
$<0.9$ 35
 2002
COSM
$<4.2$ 36
 2002
COSM CMB
$<2.7$ 37
 2000
COSM
$<5.5$ 38
 1999
ASTR ${}^{}\mathrm {Ly}$ $\alpha$ power spec
$<180$
 1974
COSM
$<132$
 1972
COSM
$<280$
 1972
COSM
$<400$
 1966
COSM
1  Combines temperature anisotropies of the CMB from Planck with data on baryon acoustic oscillations and the optical depth to reionization. Limit is strengthened to 0.118 when high multipole polarization data is included. Updates GIUSARMA 2016 .
2  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos using the Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum with BOSS (mid-resolution), XQ-100 (high-resolution) and CMB. Without the CMB data, the limit relaxes to 0.8 eV. Supersedes PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE 2015A.
3  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from Planck CMB data combined with baryon acoustic oscillation and Planck cluster data.
4  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from BAO data from SDSS-III/BOSS combined with CMB data from Planck. Limit quoted for normal mass hierarchy. The limit for the inverted mass hierarchy is 0.20 eV and for the degenerate mass hierarchy it is 0.15 eV.
5  ROSSI 2015 sets limits on the sum of neutrino masses using BOSS Lyman alpha forest data combined with Planck CMB data and baryon acoustic oscillations.
6  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from Planck CMB data along with WMAP polarization, high L, and BAO data.
7  Finite neutrino mass fit to resolve discrepancy between CMB and lensing measurements.
8  Fit to the total mass of neutrinos from BOSS data along with WMAP CMB data and data from other BAO constraints and weak lensing.
9  Fit to the total mass of neutrinos from Planck CMB data along with BAO.
10  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from Planck CMB data combined with baryon acoustic oscillation data from BOSS and HST data on the Hubble parameter.
11  Fit based on the SPT-SZ survey combined with CMB, BAO, and ${{\mathit H}_{{0}}}$ data.
12  Constraints the total mass of neutrinos (marginalizing over the effective number of neutrino species) from CMB, CMB lensing, BAO, and galaxy clustering data.
13  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from Planck CMB data combined with baryon acoustic oscillation data from BOSS, 6dFGS, SDSS, WiggleZ data on the galaxy power spectrum, and HST data on the Hubble parameter. The limit is increased to 0.25 eV if a lower bound to the sum of neutrino masses of 0.04 eV is assumed.
14  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from observational Hubble parameter data with seven-year WMAP data and the most recent estimate of ${{\mathit H}_{{0}}}$.
15  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the CFHTLS combined with seven-year WMAP data and a prior on the Hubble parameter. Limit is relaxed to 0.41 eV when small scales affected by non-linearities are removed.
16  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the five-year WMAP data.
17  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the 7-year WMAP data including SDSS and HST data. Limit relaxes to 1.19 eV when CMB data is used alone. Supersedes HANNESTAD 2006 .
18  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from a combination of CMB data, a recent measurement of ${{\mathit H}_{{0}}}$ (SHOES), and baryon acoustic oscillation data from SDSS.
19  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from SDSS MegaZ LRG DR7 galaxy clustering data combined with CMB, HST, supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation data. Limit relaxes to 0.47 eV when the equation of state parameter, $\mathit w$ ${}\not=$ 1.
20  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from weak lensing measurements when combined with CMB. Limit improves to 0.54 eV when supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation observations are included. Assumes $\Lambda CDM$ model.
21  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from five-year WMAP data. Limit improves to 0.67 eV when supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation observations are included. Limits quoted assume the $\Lambda CDM$ model. Supersedes SPERGEL 2007 .
22  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from weak lensing measurements when combined with CMB. Limit improves to 0.03 $<\Sigma {\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}<$ 0.54 eV when supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation observations are included. The slight preference for massive neutrinos at the two-sigma level disappears when systematic errors are taken into account. Assumes $\Lambda CDM$ model.
23  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from recent Chandra X-ray observations of galaxy clusters when combined with CMB, supernovae, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Assumes flat universe and constant dark-energy equation of state, $\mathit w$.
24  Constraints the total mass of neutrinos from recent CMB and SOSS LRG power spectrum data along with bias mass relations from SDSS, DEEP2, and Lyman-Break Galaxies. It assumes $\Lambda CDM$ model. Limit degrades to 0.59 eV in a more general wCDM model.
25  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from neutrino oscillation experiments and cosmological data. The most conservative limit uses only WMAP three-year data, while the most stringent limit includes CMB, large-scale structure, supernova, and Lyman-alpha data.
26  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from recent CMB, large scale structure, SN1a, and baryon acoustic oscillation data. The limit relaxes to 1.75 when WMAP data alone is used with no prior. Paper shows results with several combinations of data sets. Supersedes KRISTIANSEN 2006 .
27  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the CMB and the large scale structure data. The most conservative limit is obtained when generic initial conditions are allowed.
28  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from recent CMB, large scale structure, Lyman-alpha forest, and SN1a data.
29  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from recent CMB and large scale structure data. See also GOOBAR 2006 . Superseded by HANNESTAD 2010 .
30  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the CMB and the final 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
31  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the CMB experiments alone, assuming $\Lambda$CDM Universe. FUKUGITA 2006 show that this result is unchanged by the 3-year WMAP data.
32  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the power spectrum of fluctuations derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF galaxy redshift survey, WMAP and 27 other CMB experiments and measurements by the HST Key project.
33  Constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the power spectrum of fluctuations derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the 2dF galaxy redshift survey, WMAP and ACBAR. The limit is strengthened to 0.6 eV when measurements by the HST Key project and supernovae data are included.
34  Constrains the fractional contribution of neutrinos to the total matter density in the Universe from WMAP data combined with other CMB measurements, the 2dfGRS data, and Lyman $\alpha$ data. The limit does not noticeably change if the Lyman $\alpha$ data are not used.
35  LEWIS 2002 constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the power spectrum of fluctuations derived from the CMB, HST Key project, 2dF galaxy redshift survey, supernovae type$~$Ia, and BBN.
36  WANG 2002 constrains the total mass of neutrinos from the power spectrum of fluctuations derived from the CMB and other cosmological data sets such as galaxy clustering and the Lyman $\alpha$ forest.
37  FUKUGITA 2000 is a limit on neutrino masses from structure formation. The constraint is based on the clustering scale $\sigma _{8}$ and the COBE normalization and leads to a conservative limit of $0.9~$eV assuming 3$~$nearly degenerate neutrinos. The quoted limit is on the sum of the light neutrino masses.
38  CROFT 1999 result based on the power spectrum of the ${}^{}\mathrm {Ly}$ $\alpha$ forest. If $\Omega _{{\mathrm {matter}}}<0.5$, the limit is improved to ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}}}<2.4$ ($\Omega _{{\mathrm {matter}}}/0.17 - 1$) eV.
References:
 VAGNOZZI 2017
PR D96 123503 Unveiling $\nu$ secrets with cosmological data: neutrino masses and mass hierarchy
 YECHE 2017
JCAP 1706 047 Constraints on Neutrino Masses from Lyman-Alpha Forest Power Spectrum with BOSS and XQ-100
 DIVALENTINO 2016
PR D93 083527 Cosmological Limits on Neutrino Unknowns Versus Low Redshift Priors
 HUANG 2016
EPJ C76 489 Constraints on the Neutrino Mass and Mass Hierarchy from Cosmological Observations
 ROSSI 2015
PR D92 063505 Constraints on Dark Radiation from Cosmological Probes
AA 571 A16 Planck 2013 Results. XVI. Cosmological Parameters
 BATTYE 2014
PRL 112 051303 Evidence for Massive Neutrinos from Cosmic Microwave Background and Lensing Observations
 BEUTLER 2014
MNRAS 444 3501 The Clustering of Galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Signs of Neutrino Mass in Current Cosmological Datasets
 COSTANZI 2014
JCAP 1410 081 Neutrino Constraints: what Large-Scale Structure and CMB Data are Telling Us?
 GIUSARMA 2014
PR D90 043507 Relic Neutrinos, Thermal Axions and Cosmology in Early 2014
 HOU 2014
APJ 782 74 Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500 deg${}^{2}$ SPT-SZ Survey
 LEISTEDT 2014
PRL 113 041301 No New Cosmological Concordance with Massive Sterile Neutrinos
 RIEMER-SORENSEN 2014
PR D89 103505 Combining Planck Data with Large Scale Structure Information Gives a Strong Neutrino Mass Constraint
 MORESCO 2012
JCAP 1207 053 New Constraints on Cosmological Parameters and Neutrino Properties using the Expansion Rate of the Universe to z ~ 1.75
 XIA 2012
JCAP 1206 010 Constraints on Massive Neutrinos from the CFHTLS Angular Power Spectrum
 SAITO 2011
PR D83 043529 Neutrino Mass Constraint from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Power Spectrum of Luminous Red Galaxies and Perturbation Theory
JCAP 1008 001 Neutrino and Axion Hot Dark Matter Bounds after WMAP-7
 SEKIGUCHI 2010
JCAP 1003 015 Neutrino Mass from Cosmology: Impact of High-Accuracy Measurement of the Hubble Constant
 THOMAS 2010
PRL 105 031301 Upper Bound of 0.28 eV on Neutrino Masses from the Largest Photometric Redshift Survey
 ICHIKI 2009
PR D79 023520 Constraints on Neutrino Masses from Weak Lensing
 KOMATSU 2009
APJS 180 330 Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Interpretation
 TERENO 2009
AA 500 657 CFHTLS Weak-Lensing Constraints on the Neutrino Masses
 VIKHLININ 2009
APJ 692 1060 Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints
 BERNARDIS 2008
PR D78 083535 Improved Limit on the Neutrino Mass with CMB and Redshift-Dependent Halo Bias-mass Relations from SDSS, DEEP2, and Lyman-break Galaxies
 FOGLI 2007
PR D75 053001 Observables Sensitive to Absolute Neutrino Masses: A Reappraisal after WMAP 3-Year and First MINOS Results
 KRISTIANSEN 2007
PR D75 083510 Using the Cluster Mass Function from Weak Lensing to Constrain Neutrino Masses
 ZUNCKEL 2007
JCAP 0708 004 Conservative Estimates of the Mass of the Neutrino from Cosmology
 CIRELLI 2006
JCAP 0612 013 Cosmology of Neutrinos and Extra-Light Particles after WMAP3
JCAP 0611 016 Neutrino Masses and Cosmic Radiation Density: Combined Analysis
 SANCHEZ 2006
MNRAS 366 189 Cosmological Parameters from Cosmic Microwave Background Measurements and the Final 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey Power Spectrum
 SELJAK 2006
JCAP 0610 014 Cosmological Parameters from Combining the Lyman-$\alpha$ Forest with CMB, Galaxy Clustering and SN Constraints
 ICHIKAWA 2005
PR D71 043001 Constraining Neutrino Masses by CMB Experiments ALONE
 BARGER 2004
PL B595 55 Neutrino Mass Limits from SDSS, 2dFGRS and WMAP
 CROTTY 2004
PR D69 123007 Current Cosmological Bounds on Neutrino Masses and Relativistic Relics
 SPERGEL 2003
APJS 148 175 First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Determination of Cosmological Parameters
 LEWIS 2002
PR D66 103511 Cosmological Parameters from CMB and Other Data: A Monte-Carlo Approach
 WANG 2002
PR D65 123001 Is Cosmology Consistent?
 FUKUGITA 2000
PRL 84 1082 Limits on Neutrino Mass from Cosmic Structure Formation
 CROFT 1999
PRL 83 1092 Cosmological Limits on the Neutrino Mass from the Ly $\alpha$ Forest
 SZALAY 1974
APAH 35 8 Limit on the Rest Masses from Big Bang Cosmology
 COWSIK 1972
PRL 29 669 An Upper Limit on the Neutrino Rest Mass
 MARX 1972
Nu Conf. Budapest Neutrino '72. Volume II. Europhysics conference, Balatonfuered, Hungary, June 11--17, 1972. Frenkel, A. Marks, G. (eds.).
 GERSHTEIN 1966
JETPL 4 120 Rest Mass of Muonic Neutrino and Cosmology
 FUKUGITA 2006
PR D74 027302 Limit on the Neutrino Mass from the WMAP Three-Year Data
 PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE 2015A
JCAP 1511 011 Neutrino Masses and Cosmology with Lyman-alpha Forest Power Spectrum
 FREESE 1984
NP B233 167 General Cosmological Constraints on the Masses of Stable Neutrinos and other inos''
 SCHRAMM 1984
PL 141B 337 On the Relation of the Cosmological Constraints on Neutrino Flavors to the Width of the ${{\mathit Z}^{0}}$
 COWSIK 1985
PL 151B 62 Constriction of Cosmological Bounds on Neutrino Masses by Flavor Mixing Decays
 SZALAY 1976
AA 49 437 Neutrino Rest Mass from Cosmology
 VYSOTSKY 1977
JETPL 26 188 Cosmological Restriction on Neutral Lepton Masses
 BERNSTEIN 1981
PL 101B 39 Age of a Neutrino Dominated Universe