Limits on $\boldsymbol R$ from On-Shell Production of Gravitons: $\delta $ = 2 INSPIRE search

This section includes limits on on-shell production of gravitons in collider and astrophysical processes. Bounds quoted are on $\mathit R$, the assumed common radius of the flat extra dimensions, for $\delta $ = 2 extra dimensions. Studies often quote bounds in terms of derived parameter; experiments are actually sensitive to the masses of the KK gravitons: $\mathit m_{\vec n}$ = $\vert \vec n\vert /\mathit R$. See the Review on ``Extra Dimensions'' for details. Bounds are given in $\mu $m for $\delta $ = 2.

VALUE ($\mu {\mathrm {m}}$) CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
$\bf{<10.9}$ 95 1
AABOUD
2016D
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$\bf{<0.00016}$ 95 2
HANNESTAD
2003
Neutron star heating
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
3
SIRUNYAN
2017AQ
CMS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<90$ 95 4
AABOUD
2016F
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
5
KHACHATRYAN
2016N
CMS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<17.2$ 95 6
AAD
2015BH
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
7
AAD
2015CS
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<15$ 95 8
KHACHATRYAN
2015AL
CMS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<25$ 95 9
AAD
2013AD
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<127$ 95 10
AAD
2013C
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<34.4$ 95 11
AAD
2013D
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit j}}$
$<0.0087$ 95 12
AJELLO
2012
FLAT Neutron star ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ sources
$<23$ 95 13
CHATRCHYAN
2012AP
CMS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<92$ 95 14
AAD
2011S
ATLS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<72$ 95 15
CHATRCHYAN
2011U
CMS ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<245$ 95 16
AALTONEN
2008AC
CDF ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<615$ 95 17
ABAZOV
2008S
D0 ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<0.916$ 95 18
DAS
2008
Supernova cooling
$<350$ 95 19
ABULENCIA,A
2006
CDF ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<270$ 95 20
ABDALLAH
2005B
DLPH ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<210$ 95 21
ACHARD
2004E
L3 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<480$ 95 22
ACOSTA
2004C
CDF ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<0.00038$ 95 23
CASSE
2004
Neutron star ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ sources
$<610$ 95 24
ABAZOV
2003
D0 ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$
$<0.96$ 95 25
HANNESTAD
2003
Supernova cooling
$<0.096$ 95 26
HANNESTAD
2003
Diffuse ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ background
$<0.051$ 95 27
HANNESTAD
2003
Neutron star ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ sources
$<300$ 95 28
HEISTER
2003C
ALEP ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$
29
FAIRBAIRN
2001
Cosmology
$<0.66$ 95 30
HANHART
2001
Supernova cooling
31
CASSISI
2000
Red giants
$<1300$ 95 32
ACCIARRI
1999S
L3 ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit Z}}{{\mathit G}}$
1  AABOUD 2016D search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 3.2 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13 TeV to place lower limits on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions (see their Table X), from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived.
2  HANNESTAD 2003 obtain a limit on $\mathit R$ from the heating of old neutron stars by the surrounding cloud of trapped KK gravitons. Limits for all $\delta {}\leq{}$7 are given in their Tables$~$V and VI. These limits supersede those in HANNESTAD 2002 .
3  SIRUNYAN 2017AQ search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 12.9 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13 TeV to place limits on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for three to six extra dimensions (see their Table 3).
4  AABOUD 2016F search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 3.2 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13 TeV to place limits on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions (see their Figure 9), from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived.
5  KHACHATRYAN 2016N search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 19.6 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV to place limits on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for three to six extra dimensions (see their Table 5).
6  AAD 2015BH search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 20.3 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions, from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived. See their Figure 9 for bounds on all ${{\mathit \delta}}{}\leq{}$ 6.
7  AAD 2015CS search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 20.3 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV to place lower limits on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions (see their Fig. 18).
8  KHACHATRYAN 2015AL search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 19.7 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions (see their Table 7), from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived.
9  AAD 2013AD search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 4.7 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions, from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived. See their Table 8 for bounds on all ${{\mathit \delta}}{}\leq{}$ 6.
10  AAD 2013C search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 4.6 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions, from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived.
11  AAD 2013D search for the dijet decay of quantum black holes in 4.8 fb${}^{-1}$ of data produced in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to seven extra dimensions, from which these bounds on ${{\mathit R}}$ are derived. Limits on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for all $\delta $ ${}\leq{}$ 7 are given in their Table 3.
12  AJELLO 2012 obtain a limit on ${{\mathit R}}$ from the gamma-ray emission of point ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ sources that arise from the photon decay of KK gravitons which are gravitationally bound around neutron stars. Limits for all ${{\mathit \delta}}{}\leq{}$ 7 are given in their Table 7.
13  CHATRCHYAN 2012AP search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 5.0 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions, from which this bound on ${{\mathit R}}$ is derived. See their Table 7 for bounds on all ${{\mathit \delta}}{}\leq{}$ 6.
14  AAD 2011S search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 33 pb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV, to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to four extra dimensions, from which these bounds on ${{\mathit R}}$ are derived. See their Table 3 for bounds on all ${{\mathit \delta}}{}\leq{}$ 4.
15  CHATRCHYAN 2011U search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 36 pb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV, to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to six extra dimensions, from which these bounds on ${{\mathit R}}$ are derived. See their Table 3 for bounds on all ${{\mathit \delta}}{}\leq{}$ 6.
16  AALTONEN 2008AC search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ and ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96 TeV with 2.0 fb${}^{-1}$ and 1.1 fb${}^{-1}$ respectively, in order to place bounds on the fundamental scale and size of the extra dimensions. See their Table III for limits on all $\delta {}\leq{}$ 6.
17  ABAZOV 2008S search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ , using 1 fb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96 TeV to place bounds on ${{\mathit M}_{{D}}}$ for two to eight extra dimensions, from which these bounds on $\mathit R$ are derived. See their paper for intermediate values of $\delta $.
18  DAS 2008 obtain a limit on $\mathit R$ from Kaluza-Klein graviton cooling of SN1987A due to plasmon-plasmon annihilation.
19  ABULENCIA,A 2006 search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ using 368 pb${}^{-1}$ of data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96 TeV. See their Table II for bounds for all $\delta $ ${}\leq{}$ 6.
20  ABDALLAH 2005B search for ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {s }$ = $180 - 209$~GeV to place bounds on the size of extra dimensions and the fundamental scale. Limits for all $\delta $ ${}\leq{}$ 6 are given in their Table~6. These limits supersede those in ABREU 2000Z.
21  ACHARD 2004E search for ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {s }$ = $189 - 209$~GeV to place bounds on the size of extra dimensions and the fundamental scale. See their Table~8 for limits with $\delta $ ${}\leq{}$ 8. These limits supersede those in ACCIARRI 1999R.
22  ACOSTA 2004C search for ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ ${{\mathit p}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.8~TeV to place bounds on the size of extra dimensions and the fundamental scale. See their paper for bounds on $\delta $~=~4,~6.
23  CASSE 2004 obtain a limit on $\mathit R$ from the gamma-ray emission of point ${{\mathit \gamma}}$ sources that arises from the photon decay of gravitons around newly born neutron stars, applying the technique of HANNESTAD 2003 to neutron stars in the galactic bulge. Limits for all $\delta {}\leq{}$7 are given in their Table~I.
24  ABAZOV 2003 search for ${{\mathit p}}$ ${{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit j}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {\mathit s }$=1.8 TeV to place bounds on $\mathit M_{\mathit D}$ for 2 to 7 extra dimensions, from which these bounds on $\mathit R$ are derived. See their paper for bounds on intermediate values of $\delta $. We quote results without the approximate NLO scaling introduced in the paper.
25  HANNESTAD 2003 obtain a limit on $\mathit R$ from graviton cooling of supernova SN1987a. Limits for all $\delta {}\leq{}$7 are given in their Tables$~$V and VI.
26  HANNESTAD 2003 obtain a limit on $\mathit R$ from gravitons emitted in supernovae and which subsequently decay, contaminating the diffuse cosmic$~{{\mathit \gamma}}$ background. Limits for all $\delta {}\leq{}$7 are given in their Tables$~$V and VI. These limits supersede those in HANNESTAD 2002 .
27  HANNESTAD 2003 obtain a limit on $\mathit R$ from gravitons emitted in two recent supernovae and which subsequently decay, creating point$~{{\mathit \gamma}}$ sources. Limits for all $\delta {}\leq{}$7 are given in their Tables$~$V and VI. These limits are corrected in the published erratum.
28  HEISTER 2003C use the process ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit \gamma}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {\mathit s }$ = $189 - 209$ GeV to place bounds on the size of extra dimensions and the scale of gravity. See their Table$~$4 for limits with $\delta {}\leq{}$6 for derived limits on $\mathit M_{\mathit D}$.
29  FAIRBAIRN 2001 obtains bounds on $\mathit R$ from over production of KK gravitons in the early universe. Bounds are quoted in paper in terms of fundamental scale of gravity. Bounds depend strongly on temperature of QCD phase transition and range from $\mathit R<0.13~\mu $m to $0.001~\mu $m for $\delta $=2; bounds for $\delta $=3,4 can be derived from Table$~$1 in the paper.
30  HANHART 2001 obtain bounds on $\mathit R$ from limits on graviton cooling of supernova SN$~$1987a using numerical simulations of proto-neutron star neutrino emission.
31  CASSISI 2000 obtain rough bounds on $\mathit M_{\mathit D}$ (and thus $\mathit R$) from red giant cooling for $\delta $=2,3. See their paper for details.
32  ACCIARRI 1999S search for ${{\mathit e}^{+}}$ ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ $\rightarrow$ ${{\mathit Z}}{{\mathit G}}$ at $\sqrt {\mathit s }$=189 GeV. Limits on the gravity scale are found in their Table$~$2, for $\delta {}\leq{}$4.
  References:
SIRUNYAN 2017AQ
JHEP 1710 073 Search for New Physics in the Monophoton Final State in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13 TeV
AABOUD 2016D
PR D94 032005 Search for New Phenomena in Final States with an Energetic Jet and Large Missing Transverse Momentum in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13 TeV using the ATLAS Detector
AABOUD 2016F
JHEP 1606 059 Search for New Phenomena in Events with a Photon and Missing Transverse Momentum in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector
KHACHATRYAN 2016N
PL B755 102 Search for New Phenomena in Monophoton Final States in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV
AAD 2015CS
PR D91 012008 Search for New Phenomena in Events with a Photon and Missing Transverse Momentum in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV with the ATLAS Detector
AAD 2015BH
EPJ C75 299 Search for New Phenomena in Final States with an Energetic Jet and Large Missing Transverse Momentum in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV with the ATLAS Detector
KHACHATRYAN 2015AL
EPJ C75 235 Search for Dark Matter, Extra Dimensions, and Unparticles in Monojet Events in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 8 TeV
AAD 2013D
JHEP 1301 029 ATLAS Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Mass and Angular Distributions using ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV
AAD 2013C
PRL 110 011802 Search for Dark Matter Candidates and Large Extra Dimensions in Events with a Photon and Missing Transverse Momentum in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collision Data at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector
AAD 2013AD
JHEP 1304 075 Search for Dark Matter Candidates and Large Extra Dimensions in Events with a Jet and Missing Transverse Momentum with the ATLAS Detector
AJELLO 2012
JCAP 1202 012 Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT
CHATRCHYAN 2012AP
JHEP 1209 094 Search for Dark Matter and Large Extra Dimensions in Monojet Events in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV
AAD 2011S
PL B705 294 Search for New Phenomena with the Monojet and Missing Transverse Momentum Signature using the ATLAS Detector in $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV Proton$−$Proton Collisions
CHATRCHYAN 2011U
PRL 107 201804 Search for New Physics with a Monojet and Missing Transverse Energy in ${{\mathit p}}{{\mathit p}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 7 TeV
AALTONEN 2008AC
PRL 101 181602 Search for Large Extra Dimensions in Final States Containing one Photon or Jet and Large Missing Transverse Energy Produced in ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96$~$TeV
ABAZOV 2008S
PRL 101 011601 Search for Large Extra Dimensions via Single Photon Plus Missing Energy Final States at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96 TeV
DAS 2008
PR D78 063011 Plasmon Annihilation into Kaluza-Klein Gravitons: New Astrophysical Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions?
ABULENCIA,A 2006
PRL 97 171802 Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Production of Jets and Missing Transverse Energy in ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.96 TeV
ABDALLAH 2005B
EPJ C38 395 Photon Events with Missing Energy in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 130 to 209 GeV
ACHARD 2004E
PL B587 16 Single Photon and Multiphoton Events with Missing Energy in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at LEP
ACOSTA 2004C
PRL 92 121802 Search for Kaluza-Klein Graviton Emission in ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.8 TeV using the Missing Energy Signature
CASSE 2004
PRL 92 111102 ${{\mathit \gamma}}$-Rays from the Galactic Bugle and Large Extra Dimensions
ABAZOV 2003
PRL 90 251802 Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Monojet + $\not E_T$ Channel at ${D0}$ Detector
HANNESTAD 2003
PR D67 125008 Supernova and Neutron Star Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Reexamined
HEISTER 2003C
EPJ C28 1 Single Photon and Multiphoton Production in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ up to 209 GeV
FAIRBAIRN 2001
PL B508 335 Cosmological Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions
HANHART 2001
PL B509 1 The Likelihood of GODs' Existence: Improving the SN1987a Constraint on the Size of Large Compact Dimensions
CASSISI 2000
PL B481 323 Stellar Evolution and Large Extra Dimensions
ACCIARRI 1999S
PL B470 281 Search for Extra Dimensions in Boson and Fermion Pair Production in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Interactions at LEP
ACCIARRI 1999R
PL B470 268 Single and Multiphoton Events with Missing Energy in ${{\mathit e}^{+}}{{\mathit e}^{-}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 189 GeV
ABAZOV 2003A
PR D67 012004 ${{\mathit t}}{{\overline{\mathit t}}}$ Production Cross Section in ${{\mathit p}}{{\overline{\mathit p}}}$ Collisions at $\sqrt {s }$ = 1.8 TeV
HANNESTAD 2002
PRL 88 071301 Stringent Neutron Star Limits on Large Extra Dimension
ABREU 2000Z
EPJ C17 53 Photon Events with Missing Energy at $\sqrt {s }$ = 183 to 189-GeV