Limits on $\vert \boldsymbol U_{{{\boldsymbol e}}\boldsymbol x}\vert ^2$ as Function of ${\boldsymbol m}_{{{\boldsymbol \nu}_{{x}}}}$

Kink search in nuclear ${{\boldsymbol \beta}}$ decay INSPIRE search

High-sensitivity follow-up experiments show that indications for a neutrino with mass 17 keV (Simpson, Hime, and others) were not valid. Accordingly, we no longer list the experiments by these authors and some others which made positive claims of 17 keV neutrino emission. Complete listings are given in the 1994 edition (Physical Review D50 1173 (1994)) and in the 1998 edition (The European Physical Journal C3 1 (1998)). We list below only the best limits on $\vert {{\mathit U}_{{{ex}}}}\vert ^2$ for each ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}$. See WIETFELDT 1996 for a comprehensive review.
VALUE ($ 10^{-3} $) CL$\%$ ${\mathrm {{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{j}}}} (keV)}}$ ISOTOPE METHOD DOCUMENT ID
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$ \text{<4 - 20} $ $90$ $700 - 3500$ ${}^{38m}\text{ K}$ $\text{Trap}$ 1
TRINCZEK
2003
$ \text{<9 - 116} $ $95$ $1 - 0.1$ ${}^{187}\mathrm {Re}$ $\text{cryog.}$ 2
GALEAZZI
2001
$ <1 $ $95$ $10 - 90$ ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\text{Mag spect}$ 3
HOLZSCHUH
2000
$ <4 $ $95$ $14 - 17$ ${}^{241}\mathrm {Pu}$ $\text{Electrostatic spec}$ 4
DRAGOUN
1999
$ <1 $ $95$ $\text{4 - 30}$ ${}^{63}\mathrm {Ni}$ $\text{Mag spect}$ 5
HOLZSCHUH
1999
$ \text{<10 - 40} $ $90$ $370 - 640$ ${}^{37}\mathrm {Ar}$ $\text{EC ion recoil}$ 6
HINDI
1998
$ \text{<10} $ $95$ $1$ ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ SPEC 7
HIDDEMANN
1995
$ \text{<6} $ $95$ $2$ ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ SPEC 7
HIDDEMANN
1995
$ \text{<2} $ $95$ $3$ ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ SPEC 7
HIDDEMANN
1995
$ <0.7 $ $99$ $\text{16.3 - 16.6}$ ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ $\text{Prop chamber}$ 8
KALBFLEISCH
1993
$ <2 $ $95$ $13 - 40$ ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\text{Si(Li)}$ 9
MORTARA
1993
$ <0.73 $ $95$ $17$ ${}^{63}\mathrm {Ni}$ $\text{Mag spect}$
OHSHIMA
1993
$ <1.0 $ $95$ 10$-$24 ${}^{63}\mathrm {Ni}$ $\text{Mag spect}$
KAWAKAMI
1992
$ \text{<0.9 - 2.5} $ $90$ $1200 - 6800$ ${}^{20}\mathrm {F}$ $\text{beta spectrum}$ 10
DEUTSCH
1990
$ <8 $ $90$ $80$ ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\text{Mag spect}$ 11
APALIKOV
1985
$ <1.5 $ $90$ $60$ ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\text{Mag spect}$
APALIKOV
1985
$ <3.0 $ $90$ 5$-$50 $\text{Mag spect}$
MARKEY
1985
$ <0.62 $ $90$ $48$ ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\text{Si(Li)}$
OHI
1985
$ <0.90 $ $90$ $30$ ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\text{Si(Li)}$
OHI
1985
$ <4 $ $90$ $140$ ${}^{64}\mathrm {Cu}$ $\text{Mag spect}$ 12
SCHRECKENBACH
1983
$ <8 $ $90$ $440$ ${}^{64}\mathrm {Cu}$ $\text{Mag spect}$ 12
SCHRECKENBACH
1983
$ <100 $ $90$ $\text{0.1 - 3000}$ $\text{THEO}$ 13
SHROCK
1980
$ <0.1 $ $68$ $80$ $\text{THEO}$ 14
SHROCK
1980
1  TRINCZEK 2003 is a search for admixture of heavy neutrino to ${{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}$, in contrast to ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ used in many other searches. Full kinematic reconstruction of the neutrino momentum by use of a magneto optical trap.
2  GALEAZZI 2001 use an cryogenic microcalorimeter to search for mass $50 - 1000$ eV neutrino admixtures using the ${}^{187}\mathrm {Re}$ beta spectrum with 2.4 keV endpoint. They derive limits for the admixture of heavy neutrinos, ranging from $9 \times 10^{-3}$ for mass 1 keV to $0.116$ for mass 100 eV. This is a significant improvement with respect to HIDDEMANN 1995 , especially for masses below $\sim{}$500 MeV, where the limit is about a factor of $\sim{}$2 higher.
3  HOLZSCHUH 2000 use an iron-free $\beta ~$spectrometer to measure the ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\beta $ decay spectrum. An analysis of the spectrum in the energy range $56 - 173~$keV is used to derive limits for the admixture of heavy neutrinos. This extends the range of neutrino masses explored in HOLZSCHUH 1999 .
4  DRAGOUN 1999 analyze the $\beta ~$decay spectrum of ${}^{241}\mathrm {Pu}$ in the energy range $0.2 - 9.2$ keV to derive limits for the admixture of heavy neutrinos. It is not competitive with HOLZSCHUH 1999 .
5  HOLZSCHUH 1999 use an iron-free $\beta ~$spectrometer to measure the ${}^{63}\mathrm {Ni}\beta $ decay spectrum. An analysis of the spectrum in the energy rage $33 - 67.8$ keV is used to derive limits for the admixture of heavy neutrinos.
6  HINDI 1998 obtain a limit on heavy neutrino admixture from EC decay of ${}^{37}\mathrm {Ar}$ by measuring the time-of-flight distribution of the recoiling ions in coincidence with x-rays or Auger electrons. The authors report upper limit for $\vert \mathit U_{{{\mathit e}}\mathit x}\vert ^2$ of $\approx{}3\%$ for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}$=500 keV, 1$\%$ for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}$=550 keV, 2$\%$ for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}$=600 keV, and 4$\%$ for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit x}}}$=650 keV. Their reported limits for ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}{}\leq{}450$ keV are inferior to the limits of SCHRECKENBACH 1983 .
7  In the beta spectrum from tritium $\beta $ decay nonvanishing or mixed ${\mathit m}_{{{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{1}}}}$ state in the mass region $0.01 - 4~$keV. For ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}$ $<1~$keV, their upper limit on $\vert \mathit U_{{{\mathit e}}\mathit x}\vert ^2$ becomes less
8  KALBFLEISCH 1993 extends the 17 keV neutrino search of BAHRAN 1992 , using an improved proportional chamber to which a small amount of ${}^{3}\mathrm {H}$ is added. Systematics are significantly reduced, allowing for an improved upper limit. The authors give a 99$\%$ confidence limit on $\vert \mathit U_{{{\mathit e}}\mathit x}\vert ^2$ as a function of ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit \nu}_{{x}}}}$ in the range from $13.5$ keV to $17.5$ keV. See also the related papers BAHRAN 1993 , BAHRAN 1993B, and BAHRAN 1995 on theoretical aspects of beta spectra and fitting methods for heavy neutrinos.
9  MORTARA 1993 limit is from study using a high-resolution solid-state detector with a superconducting solenoid. The authors note that ``The sensitivity to neutrino mass is verified by measurement with a mixed source of ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ and ${}^{14}\mathrm {C}$, which artificially produces a distortion in the beta spectrum similar to that expected from the massive neutrino.''
10  DEUTSCH 1990 search for emission of heavy ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ in super-allowed beta decay of ${}^{20}\mathrm {F}$ by spectral analysis of the electrons.
11  This limit was taken from the figure 3 of APALIKOV 1985 ; the text gives a more restrictive limit of $1.7 \times 10^{-3}$ at CL = 90$\%$.
12  SCHRECKENBACH 1983 is a combined measurement of the ${{\mathit \beta}^{+}}$ and ${{\mathit \beta}^{-}}$ spectrum.
13  SHROCK 1980 was a retroactive analysis of data on several superallowed $\beta $ decays to search for kinks in the Kurie plot.
14  Application of test to search for kinks in $\beta $ decay Kurie plots.
  References:
TRINCZEK 2003
PRL 90 012501 Novel Search for Heavy ${{\mathit \nu}}$ Mixing from the $\beta {}^{+}$ Decay of ${}^{32m}$K Confined in an Atom Trap
GALEAZZI 2001
PRL 86 1978 Limits on the Existence of Heavy Neutrinos in the Range 50 $−$ 1000 eV from the Study of the ${}^{187}\mathrm {Re}$ $\beta $ Decay
HOLZSCHUH 2000
PL B482 1 The $\beta $ Spectrum of ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ and Search for the Admixture of Heavy Neutrinos
DRAGOUN 1999
JP G25 1839 Search for an Admixture of Heavy Neutrinos in the $\beta $ Decay of ${}^{241}\mathrm {Pu}$
HOLZSCHUH 1999
PL B451 247 Search for Heavy Neutrinos in the $\beta $-Spectrum of ${}^{63}\mathrm {Ni}$
HINDI 1998
PR C58 2512 Search for the Admixture of Heavy Neutrinos in the Recoil Spectra of ${}^{37}\mathrm {Ar}$ Decay
HIDDEMANN 1995
JP G21 639 Limits on Neutrino Masses from the Tritium $\beta $ Spectrum
KALBFLEISCH 1993
PL B303 355 Experimental Limits on Heavy Neutrinos in Tritium $\beta $ Decay
MORTARA 1993
PRL 70 394 Evidence against a 17 keV Neutrino from ${}^{35}\mathrm {S}$ $\beta $ Decay
OHSHIMA 1993
PR D47 4840 No 17 keV Neutrino: Admixture $<$ 0.073% (95% C.L.)
KAWAKAMI 1992
PL B287 45 High Sensitivity Search for a 17 keV Neutrino: Negative Indication with an Upper Limit of 0.1%
DEUTSCH 1990
NP A518 149 Searches for Admixture of Massive Neutrinos into the Electron Flavor
APALIKOV 1985
JETPL 42 289 Searches for Heavy Neutrino in $\beta $ Decay
MARKEY 1985
PR C32 2215 Search for Admixture of Heavy Neutrinos with Masses between 5 and 55 keV
OHI 1985
PL 160B 322 Search for Heavy Neutrinos in the $\beta $ Decay of ${}^{35}\mathrm {Su}$ an Evidence against the 17 keV Heavy Neutrino
SCHRECKENBACH 1983
PL 129B 265 Search for Mixing of Heavy Neutrinos in the $\beta {}^{+}$ and $\beta {}^{-}$ Spectra of the ${}^{}\mathrm {Cu}$ Decay
SHROCK 1980
PL 96B 159 New Tests for, and Bounds on, Neutrino Masses and Lepton Mixing
BAHRAN 1993
PR D47 754 The $\beta $ Decay Endpoint and Heavy Neutrino Searches
BAHRAN 1993B
PR D47 759 Fermi Theory of Nuclear $\beta $ Decay and Heavy Neutrino Searches
BAHRAN 1995
PL B354 481 A Direct Limit on the Heavy Neutrino in Tritium $\beta $ Decay