graviton MASS INSPIRE search

Van Dam and Veltman (VANDAM 1970 ), Iwasaki (IWASAKI 1970 ), and Zakharov (ZAKHAROV 1970 ) almost simultanously showed that ``$\ldots$ there is a discrete difference between the theory with zero-mass and a theory with finite mass, no matter how small as compared to all external momenta.'' The resolution of this "vDVZ discontinuity" has to do with whether the linear approximation is valid. De Rham $\mathit et\mathit al.$ (DE-RHAM 2011 ) have shown that nonlinear effects not captured in their linear treatment can give rise to a screening mechanism, allowing for massive gravity theories. See also GOLDHABER 2010 and DE-RHAM 2017 and references therein. Experimental limits have been set based on a Yukawa potential or signal dispersion. $\mathit h_{0}$ is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km$~$s${}^{-1}~$Mpc${}^{-1}$.

The following conversions are useful: 1 eV = $1.783 \times 10^{-33}$ g = $1.957 \times 10^{-6}{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit e}}}$; $ƛ_{C}$ = ($1.973 \times 10^{-7}$ m)${\times }$(1 eV/${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit g}}}$).
VALUE (eV) DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
$\bf{<6 \times 10^{-32}}$ 1
CHOUDHURY
2004
YUKA Weak gravitational lensing
• • • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • • •
$<6.8 \times 10^{-23}$
BERNUS
2019
YUKA Planetary ephemeris INPOP17b
$<1.4 \times 10^{-29}$ 2
DESAI
2018
YUKA Gal cluster Abell 1689
$<5 \times 10^{-30}$ 3
GUPTA
2018
YUKA SPT-SZ
$<3 \times 10^{-30}$ 3
GUPTA
2018
YUKA Planck all-sky SZ
$<1.3 \times 10^{-29}$ 3
GUPTA
2018
YUKA redMaPPer SDSS-DR8
$<6 \times 10^{-30}$ 4
RANA
2018
YUKA Weak lensing in massive clusters
$<8 \times 10^{-30}$ 5
RANA
2018
YUKA SZ effect in massive clusters
$<7 \times 10^{-23}$ 6
ABBOTT
2017
DISP Combined dispersion limit from three BH mergers
$<1.2 \times 10^{-22}$ 6
ABBOTT
2016
DISP Combined dispersion limit from two BH mergers
$<2.9 \times 10^{-21}$ 7
ZAKHAROV
2016
YUKA S2 star orbit
$<5 \times 10^{-23}$ 8
BRITO
2013
Spinning black holes bounds
$<4 \times 10^{-25}$ 9
BASKARAN
2008
Graviton phase velocity fluctuations
$<6 \times 10^{-32}$ 10
GRUZINOV
2005
YUKA Solar System observations
$<9.0 \times 10^{-34}$ 11
GERSHTEIN
2004
From $\Omega _{tot}$ value assuming RTG
$>6 \times 10^{-34}$ 12
DVALI
2003
Horizon scales
$<8 \times 10^{-20}$ 13, 14
FINN
2002
DISP Binary pulsar orbital period decrease
15, 14
DAMOUR
1991
Binary pulsar PSR 1913$+$16
$<7 \times 10^{-23}$
TALMADGE
1988
YUKA Solar system planetary astrometric data
$<2 \times 10^{-29} \mathit h{}^{-1}_{0}$
GOLDHABER
1974
Rich clusters
$<7 \times 10^{-28}$
HARE
1973
Galaxy
$<8 \times 10^{4}$
HARE
1973
2${{\mathit \gamma}}$ decay
1  CHOUDHURY 2004 concludes from a study of weak-lensing data that masses heavier than about the inverse of 100 Mpc seem to be ruled out if the gravitation field has the Yukawa form.
2  DESAI 2018 limit based on dynamical mass models of galaxy cluster Abell 1689.
3  GUPTA 2018 obtains graviton mass limits using stacked clusters from 3 disparate surveys.
4  RANA 2018 limit, 68$\%$ CL, obtained using weak lensing mass profiles out to the radius at which the cluster density falls to 200 times the critical density of the Universe. Limit is based on the fractional change between Newtonian and Yukawa accelerations for the 50 most massive galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. Limits for other CL's and other density cuts are also given.
5  RANA 2018 limit, 68$\%$ CL, obtained using mass measurements via the SZ effect out to the radius at which the cluster density falls to 500 times the critical density of the Universe for 182 optically confirmed galaxy clusters in an Altacama Cosmology Telescope survey. Limits for other CL's and other density cuts are also given.
6  ABBOTT 2016 and ABBOTT 2017 assumed a dispersion relation for gravitational waves modified relative to GR.
7  ZAKHAROV 2016 constrains range of Yukawa gravity interaction from S2 star orbit about black hole at Galactic center. The limit is $<$ $2.9 \times 10^{-21}$ eV for $\delta $ = 100.
8  BRITO 2013 explore massive graviton (spin-2) fluctuations around rotating black holes.
9  BASKARAN 2008 consider fluctuations in pulsar timing due to photon interactions (``surfing'') with background gravitational waves.
10  GRUZINOV 2005 uses the DGP model (DVALI 2000 ) showing that non-perturbative effects restore continuity with Einstein's equations as the gravition mass approaches 0, then bases his limit on Solar System observations.
11  GERSHTEIN 2004 use non-Einstein field relativistic theory of gravity (RTG), with a massive graviton, to obtain the 95$\%$ CL mass limit implied by the value of $\Omega _{tot}$ = $1.02$ $\pm0.02$ current at the time of publication.
12  DVALI 2003 suggest scale of horizon distance via DGP model (DVALI 2000 ). For a horizon distance of $3 \times 10^{26}$ m (about age of Universe/$\mathit c$; GOLDHABER 2010 ) this graviton mass limit is implied.
13  FINN 2002 analyze the orbital decay rates of PSR$~$B1913+16 and PSR$~$B1534+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass limit is at 90$\%$CL.
14  As of 2014, limits on dP/dt are now about 0.1$\%$ (see T. Damour, ``Experimental tests of gravitational theory,'' in this $\mathit Review$).
15  DAMOUR 1991 is an analysis of the orbital period change in binary pulsar PSR$~1913+$16, and confirms the general relativity prediction to $0.8\%$. ``The theoretical importance of the [rate of orbital period decay] measurement has long been recognized as a direct confirmation that the gravitational interaction propagates with velocity $\mathit c$ (which is the immediate cause of the appearance of a damping force in the binary pulsar system) and thereby as a test of the existence of gravitational radiation and of its quadrupolar nature.'' TAYLOR 1993 adds that orbital parameter studies now agree with general relativity to $0.5\%$, and set limits on the level of scalar contribution in the context of a family of tensor [spin$~$2]-biscalar theories.
  References:
BERNUS 2019
PRL 123 161103 Constraining the mass of the graviton with the planetary ephemeris INPOP
DESAI 2018
PL B778 325 Limit on graviton mass from galaxy cluster Abell 1689
GUPTA 2018
ANP 399 85
RANA 2018
PL B781 220 Bounds on graviton mass using weak lensing and SZ effect in galaxy clusters
ABBOTT 2017
PRL 118 221101 GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2
ABBOTT 2016
PRL 116 061102 Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
ZAKHAROV 2016
JCAP 1605 045 Constraining the range of Yukawa gravity interaction from S2 star orbits II: Bounds on graviton mass
BRITO 2013
PR D88 023514 Massive Spin-2 Fields on Black Hole Spacetimes: Instability of the Schwarzschild and Kerr Solutions and Bounds on the Graviton Mass
BASKARAN 2008
PR D78 044018 Limits on the Speed of Gravitational Waves from Pulsar Timing
GRUZINOV 2005
NAST 10 311 On the Graviton Mass
CHOUDHURY 2004
ASP 21 559 Probing Large Distance Higher Dimensional Gravity from Lensing Data
GERSHTEIN 2004
PAN 67 1596 Graviton Mass, Quintessence and Oscillatory Character of the Universe Evolution
DVALI 2003
PR D68 024012 The Accelerated Universe and the Moon
FINN 2002
PR D65 044022 Bounding the Mass of the Graviton using Binary Pulsar Observations
DAMOUR 1991
APJ 366 501 On the Orbital Period Change of the Binary Pulsar PSR B1913+16
TALMADGE 1988
PRL 61 1159 Model Independent Constraints on Possible Modifications of Newtonian Gravity
GOLDHABER 1974
PR D9 1119 Mass of the Graviton
HARE 1973
CJP 51 431 Mass of the Graviton