#### Concentration of Heavy (Charge $+1$) Stable Particles in Matter

VALUE CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
• • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • •
$<4 \times 10^{-17}$ 95 1
 1993
SPEC Deep sea water, $\mathit M=5 - 1600{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<6 \times 10^{-15}$ 95 2
 1992
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$= $10^{5}$ to $3 \times 10^{7}$ GeV
$<7 \times 10^{-15}$ 95 2
 1992
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$= $10^{4}$, $6 \times 10^{7}$ GeV
$<9 \times 10^{-15}$ 95 2
 1992
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$= $10^{8}$ GeV
$<3 \times 10^{-23}$ 90 3
 1990
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ = 1000${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<2 \times 10^{-21}$ 90 3
 1990
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ = 5000${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<3 \times 10^{-20}$ 90 3
 1990
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ = 10000${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<1. \times 10^{-29}$
 1982 B
SPEC Water, $\mathit M=30-400{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<2. \times 10^{-28}$
 1982 B
SPEC Water, $\mathit M=12-1000{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<1. \times 10^{-14}$
 1982 B
SPEC Water, $\mathit M$ $>$1000 ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
$<(0.2-1.){\times }\text{ 10}$$^{-21}$
 1979
SPEC Water, $\mathit M=6-$350 ${\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$
 1 YAMAGATA 1993 used deep sea water at 4000$~$m since the concentration is enhanced in deep sea due to gravity.
 2 VERKERK 1992 looked for heavy isotopes in sea water and put a bound on concentration of stable charged massive particle in sea water. The above bound can be translated into into a bound on charged dark matter particle ($5 \times 10^{6}$ GeV), assuming the local density, $\rho =0.3$ GeV/cm${}^{3}$, and the mean velocity $\langle{}\mathit v\rangle{}$=300 km/s.
 3 See HEMMICK 1990 Fig.$~$7 for other masses $100 - 10000~{\mathit m}_{{{\mathit p}}}$.
References