#### ${{\mathit \nu}}$ CHARGE

$\mathit e$ = electron charge is the unit of values listed below.
VALUE ($\mathit e$) CL% DOCUMENT ID TECN  COMMENT
$\bf{<4 \times 10^{-35}}$ 95 1
 2005
COSM charge neutral universe
• • We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. • •
$<5.4 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 2
 2020 E
XMAS solar neutrinos
$1.7 - 2.3 \times 10^{-12}$ 68 3
 2020
spectral fit of XENON1T
$<3 \times 10^{-8}$ 95 4
 2016
LASR magnetic dichroism
$<2.1 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 5
 2014 A
TEXO nuclear reactor
$<1.5 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 6
 2014
nuclear reactor
$<3.7 \times 10^{-12}$ 90 7
 2007
RVUE nuclear reactor
$<2 \times 10^{-14}$ 8
 1999
ASTR red giant luminosity
$<6 \times 10^{-14}$ 9
 1999
ASTR solar cooling
$<4 \times 10^{-4}$ 10
 1994
RVUE BEBC beam dump
$<3 \times 10^{-4}$ 11
 1991
RVUE SLAC ${{\mathit e}^{-}}$ beam dump
$<2 \times 10^{-15}$ 12
 1987
ASTR SN 1987A
$<1 \times 10^{-13}$ 13
 1963
ASTR solar energy losses
 1 CAPRINI 2005 limit derived from the lack of a charge asymmetry in the universe. Limit assumes that charge asymmetries between particles are not anti-correlated.
 2 ABE 2020E obtains this result by assuming that the low-energy excess events in the XMASS detector are produced by neutrino millicharge which is common for all three neutrino flavors.
 3 KHAN 2020 performed a constrained spectral fit analysis of the excess observed in the electron recoil energy spectrum by the XENON1T experiment. This range of neutrino millicharge values is one of the possible interpretations of these excess events. For the individual flavor constraints at 90$\%$ C.L. see the original reference.
 4 DELLA-VALLE 2016 obtain a limit on the charge of neutrinos valid for masses of less than 10 meV. For heavier neutrinos the limit increases as a power of mass, reaching $10^{-6}$ $\mathit e$ for $\mathit m$ = 100 meV.
 5 CHEN 2014A use the Multi-Configuration RRPA method to analyze reactor ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ scattering on ${}^{}\mathrm {Ge}$ atoms with 300 eV recoil energy threshold to obtain this limit.
 6 STUDENIKIN 2014 uses the limit on ${{\mathit \mu}_{{\nu}}}$ from BEDA 2013 and the 2.8 keV threshold of the electron recoil energy to obtain this limit.
 7 GNINENKO 2007 use limit on ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ magnetic moment from LI 2003B to derive this result. The limit is considerably weaker than the limits on the charge of ${{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}$ and ${{\overline{\mathit \nu}}_{{e}}}$ from various astrophysics considerations.
 8 This RAFFELT 1999 limit applies to all neutrino flavors which are light enough ($<5~$keV) to be emitted from globular-cluster red giants.
 9 This RAFFELT 1999 limit is derived from the helioseismological limit on a new energy-loss channel of the Sun, and applies to all neutrino flavors which are light enough ($<1~$keV) to be emitted from the sun.
 10 BABU 1994 use COOPER-SARKAR 1992 limit on ${{\mathit \nu}}$ magnetic moment to derive quoted result. It applies to ${{\mathit \nu}_{{\tau}}}$ .
 11 DAVIDSON 1991 use data from early SLAC electron beam dump experiment to derive charge limit as a function of neutrino mass. It applies to ${{\mathit \nu}_{{\tau}}}$ .
 12 Exact BARBIELLINI 1987 limit depends on assumptions about the intergalactic or galactic magnetic fields and about the direct distance and time through the field. It applies to$~{{\mathit \nu}_{{e}}}$ .
 13 The limit applies to all flavors.
Conservation Laws:
ELECTRIC CHARGE ($\mathit Q$)
References:
 ABE 2020E
PL B809 135741 Search for exotic neutrino-electron interactions using solar neutrinos in XMASS-I
 KHAN 2020
PL B809 135782 Can Nonstandard Neutrino Interactions explain the XENON1T spectral excess?
 DELLA-VALLE 2016
EPJ C76 24 The PVLAS Experiment: Measuring Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence and Dichroism with a Birefringent Fabry-Perot Cavity
 CHEN 2014A
PR D90 011301 Constraints on Millicharged Neutrinos via Analysis of Data from Atomic Ionizations with Germanium Detectors at sub-keV Sensitivities
 STUDENIKIN 2014
EPL 107 21001 New Bounds on Neutrino Electric Millicharge from Limits on Neutrino Magnetic Moment
 GNINENKO 2007
PR D75 075014 New Limit on Millicharged Particles from Reactor Neutrino Experiments and the PVLAS Anomaly
 CAPRINI 2005
JCAP 0502 006 Constraints on the Electrical Charge Asymmetry of the Universe
 RAFFELT 1999
PRPL 320 319 Limits on Neutrino Electromagnetic Properties: An Update
 BABU 1994
PL B321 140 Closing the Windows on MeV ${{\mathit \tau}}$ Neutrinos
 DAVIDSON 1991
PR D43 2314 Limits on Particles of Small Electric Charge
 BARBIELLINI 1987
NAT 329 21 Electric Charge of the Neutrinos from SN1987A
 BERNSTEIN 1963
PR 132 1227 Electromagnetic Properties of the Neutrino